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Pjr I^CS . V/ 



^Vi pas Sitna. 





LONDON, i5«. 


iLontiDn: C. J. Clay, m.a. & Son, 


17, Paternostbk Row. 

[All Jitghis rfSinied.\ 

if /tor. 39 

( harvardN 


library i 

I 'Ul- f2 I960 ) 


. text here printed, from p. i to p. gi, is 
z folio edition of Sir Thomas More's Works, 
London, 1557. The continuation is from the edition 
of Hardyngs ChronkU, printed by Richard Grafton, 
1543, while the additions given in the notes, from 1 
Halie's Chronicle, are taken from ' The Unyon of the 
twoo noble and illustre famelies of Lancastre and ^ 
Yorke,' printed also by Grafton in 1550. Thus the 
langu^e of the volume is all of one period. 

Sir Thomas More's work was evidently left in- 1 
complete. This is shewn by its abrupt termination 1 
(see p. 91), and by the many omissions of names and 1 
dates which occur in the text, and which in the notes 1 
have been supplied from Halle. To this unfinished \ 
character of the work we owe many roughnesses of I 
language which on revision and preparation by the I 
|JM||hpT would have disappeared, fiut this cannot be \ 


counted a disadvantage. For we have here many- 
colloquial expressions and some probably provincial 
usages, of which we should not have had any illustra- 
tion in the more completed work. The notes it is 
hoped will be found sufficient for the explanation of 
all that is peculiar in the language. The narrative is 
plain enough in itself, though Bacon's History of 
Henry VII. (Pitt Press Series), especially the early- 
portion, may be read with profit in conjunction with 
the history and notes of the present volume. 

^^^^H Cambridge, 

cljarJi tijc tlnrtic (uiiBmsbcl)) tontcn bp iSasfter 
^oinas Jllore tiian ont of tlii unSEtsijEtiSis of "aontmn: a- 

bouttlieyeareof ourLorde. ISI3> Which worke hath | 

bene before litis (pine jirintei, in jjaibanges^ronfcle.anli 

in ^^allssCCronitle: but bcrj mucIjECOtrupte in inanp 

places, sometime tiaunng Usse, and sometime !)<i> 

iting mete, anb altciEb in iuotbes anb biI)oIe 

gentmrea: mutlje barging fro tfte rO' 

pfe of bis ofun fianli, bg tobit!) 

tf)i}s is piinteb. 



YNG Edwarde of that name the fowrth, after that 
i hee hadde lyued fiftie and three yeares, seuen 
t monethes, and sixe dayes, and thereof reygned 
and twentye yercs, one moneth, and eighte 
dayes, dyed at Westtnynster the nynth daye of Aprill, the 
yere of ourc redempcion a thowsande foure houndred foure 
score and three, leauinge muche fayre yssue, that is to witte, 
Edwarde the Prynce, a thhtene yeare of age; Richarde 
duke of Yorke, two yeare younger : Elizabeth, whose fortune 
and grace was after to bee Quene, wife unto kinge Henrie r 
the seuenth, and mother unto the eightli; Cecily not so 
fortunate as fayre: Brigette, whiche represent}Tige the 
vertue of her whose name she bare, professed and obserued 
a religious life in Dertforde, an house of close Nunnes: 
Anne, that was after honourablye maryed unto Thomas, i 
than Lorde Hawarde, and after Earle of Surrey. And Ka- 
iheryne whiche longe tyme tossed in either fortune, somme- 
time in wealth, ofte in aduersitye, at the laste, if this bee the 
laste, for yet she lyueth, is by the benignitye of her Ne- 
phewe, Kinge Henrye the eighte, in verye prosperous estate, a 
and woorthye her birth and vertue. 

This noble Prince deceased at his palice of Westminster, 
„ and with greate funerall honoure and heauynesse of his 
I jpeopJe from thence conueydc, was entered at Windesor, - 


A Kinge of suche gouernaunce and behauJoure in t 
peace {for in war cche parte muste needes bee others ( 
Thetnueofiie ™ys) that there was neuer anye Prince of ^ 
people. lande, attaynynge the Crowne by battayle.l 

5 heartely beloued with tlie substaunce of the people ; i 
he hjmselfe so speciallye in anye parte of his life, asfl 
the time of his death, Whiche fauour and affeccion ] 
after his decease, by the crueltie, mischiefe, ajid troublw 
the tempestious worlde that folowed, highelye towarde 1 

10 more increased. At suche time as he died, the displeas 
of those that bare him grudge, for kinge Henries sake \ 
sixte, whome he deposed, was well asswaged, and in effe| 
quenched, in that that manye of them were dead i. 
then twentie yeares of his raigne, a great parte of a loi 

IS lyfe. And many of them in the meane season growcn i 

bis fauoure, of whiche he was neuer strauiri 

Edw.irde ihe He was a goodly parsonage, and very Printi 

to behold, of hearte couragious, poUtiqueil 

counsaile, in aduersitie nothynge abashed, in prospea 

20 rather joyfull then prowde, in peace juste and merciSJ 
in warre sharpe and fyerce, in the fields bolde and harffl 
and nathelesse no farther then wysedome woulde aduj 
turousci Whose ivarres who so well consyder, hee s 
no lesse coramende hys wysedome where Jiee voyded, 1 

25 hys mannehoodc where he vainquisshed. He was of v 
louelye, of bodye myghtie, stronge, and cleane made: 1 
bee it in his latter dayes, wy th ouer liberal! dyet, sommewi 
corpulente and boorelye, and nathelesse not vncomelyejfl 
was of youthe greatlye geuen to fleshlye wantonnesse, 

30 whiche healthe of bodye, in greate prosperitye and fort 
wythoute a specyall grace hardelye refrayneth. Thys f^ 
not greatlye gryeued the people : for neyther could any a 
is pleasure stretch and exiende to the dyspleasureJ 


verye minye, and ivas wythoute nolcnce, and ouer that ii 
hys laller daj-es lessyd and ivel lefte. In whyth lyme of 
hys latter dales ihys Realm was in quyet and prosperous 
estate : no feare of oulewarde enemyes, no wane in hande, 
nor none towarde, but sucli as no manne looked for ; the 
people towarde the Prince, not in a constrayoed feare, but 
in a wyllynge and louynge obedyence: amonge them selfe, 
the commons in good peace. The Lordes whome he knewe 
at varyaunce, hymselfe in hys deathe bedde appeascd- 
hadde lefte all gatherynge of money (which is the onelye id 
thynge tliat withdraweth the heartes of Englyshmenne fro 
the Prynce) nor anye tbynge entended hee to take in 
hande, by which hce shouide bee dryeuen theretoo, for hys 
trybute oute of Fraunce hee hadde before ob- 
tayned. And the yere foregoynge hys deathe 
hee hadde obtayned Barwycke. And al bee it that all the 
tytne of hys raygne hee was wyth hys people soo benygne, 
courteyse, and so familyer, thai no parte of hys vertues was 
more estemedj yet that condicyon in the cnde of hys dayes 
(in which many princes, by a long continued souerainty, a 
decline in to a prowde porte from debonayre behauioure of 
theyr beginning) meruaylouslye in him grewe and increased ; 
50 farrefoorthe that in the somraer the laste that euer he 
sawe, hys hyghenesse beeyng al WjTidesore in huntynge, 
sente for the Mayre and Aldermenne of London to hym. a 
For none other eraunde, but too haue them hunte and bee 
mery with hym, where hee made them not so statelyc, but 
so firendely and so familier chere, and sente vcnson from 
thence so frelye into the Citye, that no one thing, in many 
dayes before, gate hym cyther moe heartes or more heartie 3 
fauoure amonge the common people, whiche oftentymes 
more esleroe and take for greatter kindenesse a lyttJe cour- 
^theo a greate benefyte. 


So deceased (as I haue said) this noble Kynge, in that 

tyme in whiche liys life was moste desyred. Whose loue 

of hys people, and theyr entiere affeccion towarde him, 

hadde bene to hys noble children (hauynge in themseife 

g also as nianye gyftes of nature, as manie Princely vertues, 

as muche goodlye towardenesse as theire age coulde receiue) 

a meruailouse forteresse and sure annoure, if deuision and 
discencion of their frendes hadde not vnarmed them, and 
lefte them deslitu[t]e, and the execrable desire of souerayntee 

loprouoked him to theire destruccion, which yf either kinde 
or kindenesse hadde holden place, muste needes haue bene 
theire chiefe defence. For Richarde the Duke of Glou- 
cester, by nature theyr vncle, by ofRce theire protectoure, to 
theire father beholden, to them selfe by othe and allegy- 

ij aunce bownden, al the bandes broken that binden manne 
and manne together, withoute anye respecte of Godde or 
the worlde, vnnaturallye contriued to bereue them, not 
onelye their dignitie, but also their lines. But forasmuche 
as this Dukes demeanoure ministreth in effecte all the 

20 whole matter whereof this booke shall entreate, it is there- 
fore conueniente, sommewhat to shewe you ere we farther 
goe, what maner of manne this was, that coulde fynde in 
his hearte so muche mischiefe to conceiue. 

Richarde Duke of Yorke, a noble manne and a mightie, 

!5 Eichani Duke bcganne not by warre, but by lawe, to challenge 
ofVotke. (ijg crown, pultyng his claime into the parlia- 

mente. Where hys cause was eyiher for right or fauoui so 
farrefoorth auaunced, that kinge Henrye his bloode (all bee 
it he hadde a goodlye Prince) vtterjye rejected, the crowne 

30 was by authoritye of parliament entaylled vnto the Duke of 
York and his issue male in remainder immediatelye after 
the deathe of Kinge Henrye. But the Duke not endurynge 
SO longe to tarye, but entending.vnder pretexte of d 

and debate arisynge in ihe realme, to preuenle his time, 
and to take vpport hyra the rule in Kinge Harry his life, 
was with manye nobles of the realme at Wakefielde slaine, 
leauinge three sonnes, Edwarde, George and Rycharde. 
AI three as they wer great states of birthe, soo were they 
greate and slatelye of stomacke, grcdye and ambicious of 
authoritie, and impacient of parteners. Ed- 
ward, ceuenging his fathers death, depriued king 
Henrie, and attained the crown. George Duke of Clarence 
was a goodly noble Prince, and at all pointes ctorg^nHkt ■ 
fortunate, if either his owne ambicion had not °^'^'^""''- 
set him against his brother, or the enuie of his enemies his 
brother agaynste hym. For were it by the Queene and the 
Lordes of her bloode whiche highlye maligned the kyoges 
kinred (as women commonly not of maUce but of nature ; 
hale them whome llieire housebandes loue) or were it a 
prowde appetite of the Duke himself entendinge to be king, 
at the lest wise heinous Treason was there layde to his 
charge, and finallye, wer hee fautye were hee faultlesse, 
attainted was hee by parliament and judged to the death, : 
and therupon haslely drouned in a Butte of Malmesey, 
whose death kyng Edwarde (albeit he commaunded it) 
when he wist it was done, pitiously bewailed and sorow- 
fully repented. 

Richarde the third sonne, of whom we nowe entrcate, s 
was in wilte and courage egall with either of 
thero, in bodye and prowesse farre vnder them ciniiofRilSi- 
bothe, little of statm-e, ill fetured of limmes, "''''''= '^'"^■ 
croke backed, his left shoulder much higher then his right, 
hard fauoured of visage, and suche as is in states called ; 
warlye, in other menne otherwise, he was malicious, wrath- 
full, enuious and, from afore his birth, euer frowarde. 

^for Uoulh reported, that the Duches his mot 



muche adoc in hor trauaile, and ihat hee came into 1 
worlde with the feete fonvarde, as menne bee borne t 
wUrde, and (as the farae ntnneth) also not vntothJ 
whither menne of hatred reporte aboue the troulhe, . 
S eJles that nature chaunged her course in hys beginninj 
whiche in the course of his lyfe many thin 
committed. None euill captaine was hee in the wane,! 
to whiche his disposicion was more metely then for pea 
Sundrye victories hadde hee, and sommetime ouerthrown 

10 but neuer in defaulte, as for his owne parsone, either of b 
dinesse or polytike order; free was hee called of dyspen| 
and sommewhat aboue hys power liberall, with large g 
hee get him vnstedfaste frendeshippe, for whiche hee i 
fain to pil and spoyle in other places, and get him stedfii 

1 J hatred. He was close and secrete, a deepe dissimul 
lowlye of counteynaunce, arrogant of heart, outwai 
coumpinable where he inwardely hated, not letting to kid 
whome hee thoughte to kyli; dispitious and cruell, not ^ 
euill will alway, but ofter for ambicion, and cither for t| 

2o suretie or encrease of his estate. Frende and foo ' 

muche what indifferent, where his aduauntage grew, ] 

spared no mans deathe, whose life withstoode his purpo( 

He slewe with his owne handes king He! 

ting Henry the sixt, being prisoner in Ihe Tower, ; 

constantly saye, and that without c 
mente or knoweledge of the king, whiche wou!de vndouj 
edly, yf he had entended that thinge, haue appointed t 
boocherly oiEce, to some other then his owne borne brotW 
Somme wise menne also weene, that his drifte coua 

-□ conuayde, lacked not in helping furth his brother ClnreB 
to his death: whiche hee resisted openly, howbeit somwhat ' 
(as menne dcmed) more faintly then he that wer hartely 
And they that thus deme, think tl 

link th at i 


he long time in kmg Edwardes life forethoughi lo be king 
in case that the king his brother (whose life hee looked that 
euil dyete shouldc shorten) shoulde happen to decease (as 
in dede he did) while his children wer yonge. And thei 
deme, that for thys interne he was gladde of his brothers 
death the Duke of Clarence, whose life must needes haue 
hindered hym so entendynge, whither the same Duke of 
Clarence hadde kei)le him true to his nephew the yonge 
king, or enterprised to be kyng himselfe. But of al this 
pointe is there no certaintie, and whoso diuineth ^Tjpon ii 
conjectures maye as wel shote to farre as to short. How- 
beit this haue I by crediUe inforraacion learned, that the 
selfe nighte in whiche kynge Edwarde died, one Mystle- 
brooke longe ere momynge came in greate haste to the 
house of one Pot l yer d welly ng in Keddecrosse strete without 15 
Crepulgate; and when he was with hastye rappyng quickly 
letten in, hee shewed vnto Pottyer that kynge Edwarde was 
departed. By my trouthe, manne, quod Pottier, then wyll 
my mayster the Duke of Gloucester bee kynge. What 
cause hee hadde soo to thynke harde it is to saye, 
whylher hee, being toward hira, anye thynge knewe that 
hee suche thynge purposed, or otherwysc had anye inke- 
lynge thereof; for hee was not hkelye to speake it of 

But nowe to retume to the course of this hystorye, were 21 
it that the duke of Gloucester hadde of olde foreminded 
this conclusion, or was nowe at erste thereunto moued, and 
putte in hope by the occasion of the tender age of the 
younge Princes his Nephues (as opportunitye and lykely- 
hoode of spede patteth a manne in courage of that hee jt 
neuer entended) certayn is it that hee contriued theyr 
destraccion, with the vsurpadon of the regal dignitye vppon 
igife. Aod for as muche as hee well wiste 



to mayntayn a long continued grudge and hearte bren- 
nynge betwene the Quenes kinred and the kinges blood, 
eytber partye enuying others authoritye, he nowe thoughr 
that their deuision shoulde bee (as it was in dede) a for- 
5 therlye begynnynge to the pursuite of his intente, and a 
sure ground for the foundacion of al his building yf he 
might firste, vnder the pretext of reuengynge of olde dis- 
pleasure, abuse the anger and ygnoraunce of the tone 
partie, to the destruccion of the tother : and then wjnne to 

lo his purpose as manye as he coulde : and those that coulde 
not bee wonne, myght be loste ere they looked therefore. 
For of one thynge was hee certayne, that if his entente 
were perceiued, he shold soone haue made peace beetwene 
the bothe parties, with his owne blonde. 

15 Kynge Edwarde in his life, albeit that this discencion 
beetwene hys frendes somniewhat yrked hym, yet in his 
good health he sommewhat the lesse regarded it, because 
liee thought whatsoeuer busines shoulde falle betwene them, 
hyraselfe should alwaye bee hable to rule bothe the partyes. 

20 But in his laste sickenesse, ivlieii hee perceiued his naturall 
strengthe soo sore enfebled, that hee dyspayred all recouerye, 
then hee consydeiynge the youthe of his chyldren, albeit hee 
nothynge lesse mistrusted then that that happened, yet well 
foreseynge that manye harmes myghte growe by theyr de- 

25 bate, whyle the youth of hys children shoulde lacke (hscrecion 
of themself and good counsayle of their frendes, of whiche 
either party shold counsayle for their owne commodity and 
rather by pleasaunte aduyse too wynne themselfe fauour, 
then by profitable aduertiseraente to do the children good, 

30 he called some of them before him that were at variaunce, 
and in especyall the Lorde Marques Dorsette, the Quenes 
sonne by her fyrste housebande, and Richarde the Lorde 
Hastynges, a noble man, than lorde chaumberlayne, 



whome the Quene specially grudged, for tlie great fauoure 
the kyng bare hym, and also for that shee thoughte hyva 
secretelye familyer with the fcynge in wanton coumpanye. 
Her fcynred also bare hym sore, as well for that the kynge 
hadde made hym captayne of Calyce (whiche office the 
Lorde Ryuers, brother to the Quere, claimed of the klnges 
former promyse) as for diuerse other greate giftes whiche 
hee receyued, that they loked for. When these lordes 
with diuerse other of bothe the parties were comme in 
presence, the kynge llftinge vppe hiraselfe and vndersette 
with pillowes, as it is reported on this wyse sayd vnto them. 

My Lordes, ray dere kinsmenne and alles, 
in what plighte I lye you see, and I feele. By i^e tyngt io 
whiche the lesse whyle I look to lyue with 
you, the more depelye am I moued to care in what case I 
leaue you, for such as I leaue you, suche bee my children lyke 
to fynde you. Whiche if they shouldc (that Godde forbydde) 
fynde you at varyaunce, myght happe to fall themaelfe at 
wane ere their discrecion woulde serue to sette you at peace. 
Ye se their youthe, of whiche I recken the onely suretie to 
reste in youre concord. For it sufiiseth not that al you loue 
them, yf eche of you hate other. If they wer menne. your 
faithfulnesse happelye woulde suffise. But childchood must 
bee maintained by mens aiithoritye, and slipper youth 
vnderpropped with elder counsayle, which neither they can 25 
haue, but ye geue it, nor ye geue it, yf ye gree not. For 
wher eche laboureth to breake that the other maketh and, 
for hatred of ech of others parson, impugneth eche others 
counsayle, there must it nedes bee long ere anye good 
conclusion goe forwarde. And also while either partye 3< 
laboureth to bee chiefe, flattery shall haue more place then 
plaine and faithfull aduyse, of whyche muste needes 
ayU bringing vppe of the Prynce, whose mjni 



tender youth infect, slial redily fal to mischief and rid 
and drawe down wilh this noble realme to mine, buL^ 
grace turn him to wisdom : which if God send, then t 
tliat by euill menes before pleased him best, shal i 
5 fall farthest out of fauour, so that euer at length euil dril 
dreue to nought, and good plain wayes prosper, 
variaunce hath ther long bene betwene you, not alway i 
great causes. Some time a thing right wel intended ( 
misconstniccion tumeth vnto worse, or a sma! displeasM 

lo done vs, cyther our owne affeccion or euil tongues I 
greueth. But this wote I well ye neuer had so great caol 
of hatred, as ye haue of loue. That we be al men, td 
we be christen men, tliis shall I leaue for prechers to I 
you (and yet I wote ncre whither any preachers woord 

15 ought more to moue you, then his that is by and by gooyJ 
to the place that thei all preache of). But this 
desire you to remember, that the one parte of you is 
bloode, the other of myne alies, and eche of yow i 
other, eyther of kinred or affinitie, whiche spirytuall kyi 

ao of afiynyty, if the sacramentes of Christes Churche 1 
that weyghte with vs that woulde Godde thei did, shouj 
no lesse moue vs to charitye, then the respecte of fleshfl 
consanguinitye. Oure Lorde forbydde that you loue ( 
gether the worse, for the selfe cause that you oughtl 

25 loue the better. And yet that happeneth. And no wha 
fynde wee so deadlye debate, as amonge them whyq 
by nature and lawe tnoste oughte to agree together. 

a pestilente serpente is ambicion and desyr 

Amticion. . , , , . , 'a 

vameglorye and soueramtye, whiche amoa 
30 states where he once entreth crepeth foorth so farre, tyll v 
deuision and variaunce hee turneth all to mischiefe. Fir| 
longing to be nexte the best, afterwarde egall with the bc( 
d at iaste chiefe and aboue the beste. Of which im 

rate appetite of woorship, and thereby of debate and disscn- 
don what losse, wliat sorowe, what trouble hathe within these 
live yeares growen in this rcalme, I praye Godde as well 
forgeate as wee well remember. Whiche thingcs yf I coulde 
as well haue foresene, as I liaue with my more payne 5 
then pleasure proued, by Goddes blessed Ladie (that was 
euer his othe) I wouldc neuer haue won the courtesye 
of menncs knees, with the losse of soo many heades. 
Bui sithen thynges passed cannot be gaine-called, muche 
aughte wee the more beware, by what occasion we haue to 
iaken soo greaie hurte afore, that we eftesoones fall not 
b that occasion agayne. Nowe be those griefes passed, 
ud all is {Godde bee thanked) quiete, and likelie righte 
irel to prosper in wealthfuU peace vnder youre coseyns 
my children, if Godde sende them life and you lone, ts 
Of whyche twoo thinges the lesse losse wer they, by 
»home thoughe Godde dydde hys pleasure, yet shoulde 
the Realme alway finde kinges and paraduenture as good 
kinges. But yf you among youre selfe in a childes reygne 
Eall at debate, many a good man shal perish and happely 20 
he to, and ye to, ere thys land finde peace again. "Wher- 
fore in these last wordes that euer I looke to speake 
with you, I exhort you and require you all, for the 
loue thai you haue euer borne to me, for the loue that 
I haue euer bom to you, for the loue that our Lord 25 
beorelh to vs all, from this time lorwarde, all grieues 
forgotten, eche of you loue other. Whiche I verelye 
tniste you will, if ye any thing earthly regard, either 
Godde or your king, affinitie or kinred, this realme, your 
owne countrey, or your owne surety. 

And therewithal the king no longer enduring to sitte vp, 30 
laide him down on his right side, his face towarde them 
jj^yi^e was there present that coulde refraine from wepli 

la THE irrsTORm OP 

But the lordes recomforting him with as good wordes a* 
they could, and answering for the time as thei thought to 
stand with his pleasure, there in his presence (as by their 
wordes appered) ech foi^aue other, and joyned their hands 
5 together, when {as it after appeared by their dedes) their 
herts wer far asonder. As soiie as the king was departed, 
the noble prince his sonne drew toward London, which 
at the time of his decease, kept his hotishold at Ludlow 
in Wales. Which countrey being far of from the law 

10 and recourse to justice, was begon to be farre oute of 
good wyll and waxen wild, robbers and riuers walking 
at libertie vncorrected. And for this cncheason the prince 
was in the life of his father sente thither, to the end 
that the aulhoritie of his presence should refraine euil dis- 

15 posed parsons fro the boldnes of their fomiar outerages. 

To the gouernaunce and ordering of this yong prince at his 

sending thyther, was there appointed sir Antony Woduile 

Lord Riuers and brother vnto the Quene, a right 

honourable man, as vallaunte of hande as poli- 

20 like in counsayle, Adjoyned wer there vnto him other of 
the same partie, and in effect euery one as he was nerest of 
kin vnto the Quene, so was planted next about the prince. 
That drifte by the Quene not vnwisely deuised, whereby her 
bloode mighte of youth be rooted in the princes fauor, the 

25 Duke of Gloucester turned vnto their destruccion, and vpon 
that grounde set the foundacion of all his vnhapjiy build- 
ing. For whom soeuer he perceiued either at variance with 
them, or bearing himself their fauor, hee brake vnto them, 
some by mouth, som by writing and secret messengers, 

30 that it neyther was reason nor in any wise to be suffered, 
that the yong king, their master and kinsmanne, shoold 
the handes and custodye of his mothers kinred, 
sequestred in nianer from theyr compani and attend; 


09© -itYCWARDB ^^S TffFRTfS. 13 

of which eueri one ought him as faithful seruice as they, 
manye of them far more honorable part of kin then 
fiis mothers side ; whose blood (quod he) sauing the kinges 
pleasure, was ful vninetely to be matched with his; whiche 
nove to be as who say remoued from the kyng, and the 
iesse noble to be left aboute him, is (quod he) neither 
honorable to hys magestie, nor vnto vs, and also to his 
grace no surety, lo haue the mightiest of his frendes from 
him, and vnto vs no litle jeopardy, to suffer our wel proued 
eui! wiilers to grow in oner gret authoritie with the prince i* 
in youth, namely which is lighte of beliefe and sone per- 
swaded. Ve remember, I trow, king Edward himself, albeit 
he was a manne of age and of discrecion, yet was he in 
nmnye thynges ruled by the bende, more then slode 
either with his honour, or our profile, or with the commo- 
ditie of any manne els, except onely the immoderate 
aduauncement of them selfe. Whiche whither they sorer 
thirsted after their own weale, or our woe, it wer hard I 
wene to gesse. And if some folkes frendship had not 
holden better place with the king, then any respect of 
kinred, the! might peraduenture easily haue betrapped 
and brought to confusion somrae of vs ere this. Why not 
as easily as they haue done some other aireadye, as neere 
of his royal bloode as we? But our Lord hath wrought his 
wil, and thanke be to his grace that peril is paste, Howe 
be it as great is growing, yf wee suffer this yonge kyng in 
oure enemyes hande, whiche without his wyltyng, might 
abuse the name of his commaunderaent, to ani of our 
vndoing, which thyng God and good prouision forbyd. Of 
which good prouision none of vs hath any thing the iesse 30 
nede, for the late made attonemente, in whyche the kinges 
pleasure hadde more place then the parties wiUes. Nor 
if vs I beleue is so vnwysc, ouersone to trusle 


Bewe frendc made of an olde foe, or to think that^^^H 
houcrly kiniJnes, sodainely contract in one houre, oM|^| 
tinued yet scant a fortnight, shold be deper setled in thell^ 
stomackes then a long accustomed malice many yerea 
5 rooted. 

With these wordcs and writynges and suche other, the 
Duke of Gloucester sone set afyre thera that were of them- 
self ethe to kindle, and in especiall twayne, Edwarde Duke. 
of Buckingham, and Richarde Lorde Hastinges and chaum- 

10 berlayn, both men of honour and of great power. The tone 
by longe succession from his ancestrie, the tother by his 
office and the kinges fauor. These two, not bearing eche to 
other so muche loue, as hatred bothe vnto the Qaenes parte, 
in this poynte accorded together wyth the Duke of Glou- 

15 cester, that they wolde vttcrlye amoue fro the kynges com- 
panye all his mothers frendes, vnder the name of their 
enemyes. Upon tliis concluded, the Duke of Gloucester 
vnderstandyng that the Lordes whichc at that tyme were ■ 
aboute the kyng entended to bryng him vppe to his Coio- 

23 nacion, accoumpanied with suche power of theyr frendes, 
that it shoulde bee harde for him to brynge his purpose to 
passe, without the gathering and great assemble of people 
and in maner of open warre, wherof the ende he wiste was 
doubtiious, and in which the kyng being on their side, his 

25 part should haue the face and name of a rebellion ; he 
secretly therefore, by diuers meanes, caused the Quene to 
be perswaded and brought in the mynd, that it neither wer 
nede, and also shold be jeopardous, the king to come vp 
strong. For where as nowe euery lorde loued other, and 

30 none other thing studyed vppon, but aboute the Coronacion 
and honoure of the king; if the lordes of her kinred shold 
assemble in the kinges name muche people, thei should 
i i;]igjnrjj£pj atwixEe whome and them hadde 1 

ladde benflS 



]etyme debate, to feare and suspecte, ]este the 
gather thys people, not for the k>Tiges sauegardt 
no manne enpugned, but for theyr destruccion, 
more regarde to their olde variaunce, then their 
attonement. For whiche cause thei shouldc assemble 
on the other partie muche people agayne for their defence, 
whose power she wyste wel farre stretched. And thus 
should all the realme fall on a rore. And of al the hurce 
that therof should ensue, which was likely not to be litle, 
and the most harme there hke to fal wher she lest would, 
all the worlds woulde put her and her kinred in the wyght, 
and say that the! had vnwyselye, and vntrewlye also, broken 
the aniitie and peace that die kyng her husband so pni- 
dentelye made betwcne bys kinne and hers in his death- 
bed, and whiche the other party faithfully obserued. 

The Queue being in this wise perswaded, suche woorde 
sente unto her sonne, and vnto her brother being aboute 
the kynge, and ouer that the Duke of Gloucester liymselfe, 
and other Lordes the chiefe of hys bende, wrote vnto the 
kynge soo reuerentelye, and to the Queenes frendes there . 
soo louyngelye, that they nothynge earthelye tnystrustynge, 
broughte the Kynge vppe in greate haste, not in good 
speede, with a sober counipanye. Nowe was the king in 
his waye to London gone from Northampton, when tliese 
Dukes of Gloucester and Buckyngham came thither. 
Where remained behjTid, the Lorde Ryuers, the Kynges 
vncle, entendyng on the morowe to folow the Kynge, and 
bee with hym at Stonye Stratford — miles thence, earely 
or hee departed. So was there made that nyghte niuche 
fiendely chere betwene these Dukes and the Lorde Riuers ; 
a greate while. But iocontinente after that they were 
oppenlye with greate courtesye departed, and the Lorde 
rs lodged, the Dukes secretdy^^ 





moste priuye frendes, selte them downe in counsayle, 
wherin they spent a great parte of the nyghL And at 
their risinge in the dawnyng of the day, thci sent about 
priuily to their seruantes in their Innes and lodgynges about, 
S geuinge them commaundemente to make them selfe shortdy 
readye, for their Lordes wcr to horseback ward, Uppon 
wliiche messages, many of their folke were attendaun^ 
when manye of the lorde Riuers seruantes were vnreadye. 
Nowe hadde these Dukes taken also into their custodye the 

lokayes of the Inne, that none shoulde passe foorth without 
theyr licence. And ouer this in the liygbe waye towarde 
Stonye Stratforde where the Kynge laye, they hadde bee- 
stowed certayne of theyr folke, that shoulde sende backe 
agayne, and compell to retourne, anye manne that were 

15 gotten oute of Northampton toward Stonye Stratforde, tyll i 
they should geue other lycence. For as muche as the | 
Dukes ihemselfe entended, for the shewe of theire dyly- ' 
gence, to bee tiie fyrste that shoulde that daye attende | 
vppon the Kynges bighnesse oute of that towne ; thus bare ' 

20 they folke in hande. But when the Lorde Ryuers vnder- 
stode the gates closed, and the wayes on euerye side besette, 
neyther hys seruauntes nor hymself suffered to gone oute, 
pareeiuyng well so greate a thyng n-ithout his knowledge 
not begun for noughtc, comparyng this raaner present nith 

35 this last nigbtes chere, in so few houtes so gret a chaunge 
marueylouslye misliked. How be it sithe hee coulde not 
geat awaye, and keepe himselfe close hee woulde not, 
leste hee shoulde seeme to hyde him selfe for some secret 
feare of hys owne faulte, whereof he saw no such cause 

30 in hym self; he determined vppon the surelie of his own 
conscience, to goe boldelye to them, and inquire what 
thys matier myghte meane. Whome as soone as they 
sawe, they beganne to qviarell with hyra, and saye 

.ye that hetfl 

and to brynge them to confusion, but it slioulde not lye 
in hys power. And when hee begannc {as hee was a very 
"ell spoken manne,) ia goodly wise to excuse himself, they 
twyed not the ende of his aunswerc, but shorteiy tooke him 
liid pulte him in warde, and that done, foorth- 
*y'hwente to horsebacke, and tookc the way e Riuf^imiu 
to Slonye Stralforde. Where they founde the 
•tinge with his companie readye to leape on hotsebacke and 
dEparle fonvarde, to leaue that lodging for thera, because it 
*S! to streighte for bothe coumpanics. And as sone as they 
came in his presence, they lighte adowne with all their 
companie aboute them. To whome the Duke of Bucking- 
httn saide, goe afore, Gentlemenne and yomen, kepc yoiu^ 
rowmes. And thus in a goodly arraye ihei came to the kinge, il 
and on theire knees in very humble wise salued his grace ; 
trbidie rcceyucd tlicm in very joyous and amiable maner, 
nothinge earthlye knowing nor mistnistinge as yet. But 
euen by and by in his yjresencc they piked a quarrell to the 
Lorde Richard Graye, the kinges other brother Tb= Lord 
by his mother, sayinge that hee, with the lorde '^^"^■ 
Marques his brother and the Lorde Riuers his vncle, hadde 
coumpassed to rule the kinge and the realme, and to sctte 
variaunce among the states, and to subdewe and destroye 
the noble blood of the realm. Toward the accoumplishinge 
whereof, they sayde that the Lorde Marques hadde entered 
into the Tower of London, and thence taken out the kinges 
Treasor, and sent menne to the sea. All whiche thinge these 
Dukes wiste well were done for good purposes and necessari 
by the whole counsaile at Ixndon, sauing that sommcwhal 30' 
the! must sai. Unto whiche woordes the king aunswered, 
what my brother Marques hath done I cannot saie. 

£utli I dare well aunswere for myne vncle Riuers and 




my brother here, that thei be innoctnt of any such matten. 
Ye, my iiege, quod the Duke of Buckingham, thei haue kepK 
Iheire dealing in these matters farre fro the knowledge o( 
your good grace. And foorthwiih thei arrested the Lord 
g Ricliarde and sir Thomas Vaughan knighte, in the kinges 
presence, and broughte the king and all backe vnto North- 
ampton, where they tooke againe further counsaile. And 
there they sente awaie from the kinge whom it pleased 
them, and sette newe seruanntes aboute him, suche as 

lo lyked better them than him. At whiche dealinge hee 
wepte and was nothing contente, but it booted not. And 
at dyner the Duke of Gloucester sente a dishe from his 
owne table to the lord Riuers, prayinge him to bee of good 
chere, all should be well inough. And he thanked the 

15 Duke and prayed_the messenger to beare it to his nephewe 
the lorde Ricliard with the same message for his comfort, 
who he thought had more nede of coumfort, as one to whom 
such aduersitie was straunge. But himself had bene at his 
dayes in ure therwith, and therfore coulde beare it the 

20 better. But for al this courafortable courtesye of the Duke 
of Gloucester he sent the lord Riuers and the Lorde 
ThrdKiihoT Richarde with sir Thomas Vaughan into the 
Rium'^Md Northe countrey into diuers places lo prison, 
oihcrs. jjjj^ aftenvard al to Pomfrail, where they were 

25 in conclusion beheaded. 

In this wise the Duke of Gloucester tooke upon himself 
the order and gouernance of the young king, whom with 
much honor and humble reuercsce he conuayed vppewarde 
towarde the citye. But anone the tidinges of this mater 

30 came hastely to the queue, a litle before the midnight 
folowing, and that in the sorest wise, that the king her 
Sonne was taken, her brotherj her sonne and her other 
^dcs arested, and sent no m^ua^jfcjtbgt|i te ^id 

'AifDB 9WB rmsDE, 


The Quf 

with God wot what. With which tidinges the quene in gret 
fright and heuines, bewailing her cliildes rain, her frendes 
mischance, and her own infortune, damning the time that 
euer shee diswaded the gallieryng of power aboute the Jtinge, 
gate her selfe in all the haste possible with her yonger sonne 
and her doughters oute of the Palyce of West- 
minster in whiche shee then laye, into the i 
Sainctuarye, lodginge her selfe and her coum- ''^^' 
panye there in the abbottes place. 

Nowe came there one, in likewise not longe after niydde- 1 
nighte, fro the Lorde Chaumberlayn vnto the archbishoppc 
of Vorke then Chaunceller of Englande, to his place not 
farre from Westminster. And for that he shewed his ser- 
uauntes that hee hadde lidinges of soo greate imporlaunce, 
that his maister gaue him in charge not to forbeare his restc, i 
they letled not to wake hym, nor hee to admilte this mes- 
senger in to his bedde syde. Of whome hee hard that 
these Dukes were gone backe with the Kynges grace from 
Stonye Stratforde vnto Norlhampton, Notwithstanding, sir, 
quod hee, my Lorde sendeth youre Lordeshippe woorde :• 
that there is no feare. For hee assureth you that all shall 
bee well. I assure him, quod the Archebishoppe, bee it as 
well as it will, it will neuer bee soo well as wee haue scene 
it. And thereuppon by and by after the messenger de- 
parted, hee caused in ail the haste at his seruauntes to bee 2, 
called vppe, and so with his owne householde aboute hym. 
and euerie manne weaponed, hee tooke the greate Scale 
with him, and came yet beefore daye vnto ihe Queene. 
Aboute whome he found muche heauinesse, rumble, haste 
and businesse, carriage and conueyaunce of her stuffe into 3' 
Sainctuary, chestes, coffers, packesj fardelles, trusses, all on 
_menn es backes, no manne vnoccupyed, somme lading, 
somme desehai^ing, somme commynge for 

70 Tim ff/sT&^m OF ^ 

more, somme breakinge doti-ne the walles to bring in M 
nexle waye, and somme yet drewe to them that holptt^ 
carrye a wronge waye. The Quene her self satte al^| 
alowe on the rishes all desolate and dismayde, whome H 
5 Archebishoppe couHiforted in the best manner hee coi^H 
shewinge her that hee trusted the matter was nothynge H 
sore as shee tooke it for. And that he was putte in gH 
hope and oute of fearc by the message sente hjni fi^m^l 
Lorde Chamberlaine. Ah, woo worthe him, quod shej^f 

lo liee is one of them that laboured! to destroye me andH 
bloode. Madame, quod he, be ye of good chere. Fi^| 
assure you if thei crowne any other kinge then your soi^k 
whome they nowe haue with them, we shal on the moi^l 
crowne his brother whome you haue here with you. J^| 

15 here is the greate Seale, whiche in likewise as that ii^| 
prince your housebande deljuered it vnto me, so he^| 
deliuer it vnto you, to the use and behoofe of youre so^| 
and therewith hee betooke her the greate Seale, and^| 
parted home agayne, yet in the dauninge of the daye. ^| 

20 which tyme hee might in his chauraber window see a,ll'^| 
Temtnes full of bootes of the Duke of Gloucesters seni^)^| 
watchinge thatnamanne shouldego to Sainctuar)-, nor ^H 
coulde passe vnserched. Then was there greate commo^B 
and murmure as well in other places about, as special^H 

35 the city, the people diuerselye diuininge vppon this dealfiH 
And somme Lordes, Knightes, and Gentlemenne etthe^H 
fauoure of the Quene, or for feare of themseife, assem^| 
in sundry coumpanies, and went flockmele in harneis; ^| 
marlye also, for that they reckened this demeanour^H 

30 tempted, not so specially againste the other Lordes," 
agaynste the kinge hyraselfe in the disturbaunce of hyi 
coronacion. But then by and by the Lordes ass 
together at . Towarde which meting, the 


bisboppe of Yortc fearing that it wold be ascribed {as it I 
was in dede) to his ouerniuch lightnesse, ihat he so sodainly ( 
■ had yelded vp the great scale to the Quene, to whome the 1 
custodye thereof nothing partained, without especial com- J 
maundeioenC of the kynge, secretdy sent for the scale a 
againe, and brought it with him after the customable maner. ■ 
And at this meting the lord Hasting, whose trouth towarde I 
the king no manne doubted nor neded lo double, per- ■ 
swaded the Lordes to bclieue, that the Duke of Gloucester I 
was sure and fastlye faithfuL to hys prince, and that the IHJ 
lorde Riuets and lord Richard with the olher knightes wer, 
for maters attempted by them sgainst the dukes of Glouces- 
ter and Buckingham, pulte vnder arreste for iheire surety, 
not for the Kynges jeopardye; and that thei were also in 
sauegarde, and (here no Icnger shoulde remayn, then tyll i 
the matter wer, not by the dukes onelye, but also by all 
the other Lordes of the Kynges counsayle indifferentelye 
examyned, and by other tliscrecions ordered, and eyther 
judged or appeased. But one thynge hee aduised them 
beware, that they judged not the matter to farrefoorlh, ere t 
they knewe the trueth, nor tumynge theire priuate grudges 
into the common hurte, yrritinge and prouoking menne vnto 
anger, and disturbynge the Kynges Coronacion, towarde 
wliiche the Dukea were commyngc vppe, that thei mighte 
paraduenture brynge the matter so farre oute of joynt, that Z. 
it shold neuer be brought in frame agayne. Whiche stryfc 
if it shoulde happe, as it were lykelye, to come to a fielde, 
though both parties were in all other ihynges egall, yet 
shoulde the authoritie bee on that syde where the Kynge 
is hymselfe. \Vilii these parswasions of the Lorde Hastynges, 
whereof parte hymselfe belieued, of parte he wist the con- 
U^rye, these commocions were sommewhat appeased, 
t Ihat the Dukes of Gloucester and j 

' sen 


il^ham were so nere, and came so sliorlelj-e on with the 
kjmge, in none other maner, with rone other voyce or 
semblaunce, then to his coronacion, causynge the fame to 
bee bloivcn aboiat, that these Lordes and knightes whidie 

5 were taken hadde coiitryued the dcstruccyon of the Dukes 
of Gloucester and Buckingham, and of otlier the noble 
bloode of the realme, to the ende that them selfe woulde 
alone demeane and gouerne the king at their pleasure. 
And for the colourable proofe thereof, such of the Dukes 

□ seruantes as rode with the cartes of theyr stuffe that were 
taken (amonge whiche stuffe no mcruayle thoughe somme 
were harneys, whiche at the breakinge vp of that householde 
muste needes eyther bee broughte awaye or caste awaye) 
they shewed vnto the people al the waye as they wente, 

5 loe here bee the barelles of harneys that this traitours had | 
priuelye conuayed in theyr carryage to dcstroye the noble ■ 
lordes with alL This deuise all be it that it made the 
matter to wise men more vnlykely, well perceyuyng that the 
intendours of suche a purpose wolde rather haue hadde 

o theyr harneys on theyr backes, then taue bounde them vppe 
in barrelles, yet muche part of the common people were 
therewith verye well satisfyed, and said it wer almoise to 
hange them. 

When the kynge approched nere to the citie, Edmonde 

5 Sha goldesmithe then mayre, with Wiilyam White and John 
Mathewe sheriffis, and all the other aldermenne in scarieite, 
with fiue hundred horse of the citezens Jn violette, receiued 
hym reuerentlye at Harnesey, and rydynge from thence, 
Th k n « accoumpanyed him into the cilye, whiche hec 

;3 coinmyiiKc 10 entered the fowrth daye of Maye, the firste and 

laste yeare of hys raygne. But the Duke of 

Gloucester bare him in open sighte so rcuerentelye to th( 

ith all semblaunce of lowlinesse, that from 


great obloquy in which hec wns soo late licfore, hee was \ 
Eodainclye fallen in soo greate Imsie, that at the counsayle 
next assembled, hee was made the onely manne chose and 
thoughte moste mete, to bee protectoure of the Theproww. 
king and hys realme, so that (were it destenye 
or were it foly) the Iamb was betaken to the wolfe to kepe. 
At whiche counsayle also the Archebishoppe of Yorke, 
Chauncelloure of Englajidfe, whiche hadde deliuered vppe ■ 
the greate seale to the Quene, was thereof greatlye 
proued, and the Seale taken from liym and deliuered to « 
doctour Russell, bysshoppe of Lyncolne, a wyse Tbci.iiiinn 
manne and a good and of muche expcryence, mJde™ll^^ 
and one of the beste learned menne vndoubt- chauoMiUmi. 
ediye that Englande hadde in hys time. Diners Lordes and j 
knightes were appoynled vnto dyucrse romiies. The Lorde I) 
Chaumberlayne and somme other kepte styll theyr offices 
that they hadde beefore. Nowe all were it soo that the pro- 
tectoure so soore thyrsted for the finysliynge of that hee 
hadde begonne, that thoughte euerye dayc a yeare lyll it 
were atchyeued, yet durste hee no further atterapte as longe a 
as he had but halfe hys praye in his hande ; well wittinge 
that yf hee deposed the one brother, all the Kealme woulde i 
falle to the toiher, yf hee either remayncd in Sainctuarye, 
or shoulde happelye bee shortelye conuayde too hys farther 
libertye. Wherefore incontinente at the ncxie metynge 8 
of the Lordes at the counsayle, hee preposed vnto them, 
that it was a haynous deede of the Quene, and procedinge 
of greate malyce towarde the Kyngcs counsayllers, that 
she should keepe in Saynctuaryc the Kynges brother fiom 
hym, whose specyall pleasure and coum forte were to haue 3 
his brother with hym. And that by her done to none i 
other entente, but to brynge all the Lordes in obloquie J 
^murmurs of the people. As thoughe ih^yjer^ 


to bee trusted with the Kynges brother, that by the assenle 
of the nobles of the laiide ivi^r appoynted, as the Kynges 
fiereste friendes, to the tuicyon of his owne royall parsone. 
The prosperytye whereof standeih (quod hee) not all in 
5 keepynge from enemyes or yl! vyande, but partelye also 
in recreacion and moderate pleasure ; which he cannot in 
this tender youthe take in the coumpanye of auncient 
parsons, but in the faniylier conuersacyon of those that bee 
neyther farre vnder nor farre abooe his age, and nath- 

lo lesse of estate conuenient to accoumpanye his noble ma- 
gestie. Wherefore with wiiom rather then with his owne 
brother? And yf anye nianne thitike this consideracion 
(whiche I thynke no manne thynketh that loueth the 
Kynge) lette hym consyder that sommetitnc withoute smal 

IS thinges greatter cannot stande. And verclye it redonTideth 
greatelye to the dishonoure bothe of the kinges hfghnesse 
and of al vs that bene about his grace, to haue it runne 
in euery mans mouth, rot in this realme oncly, but also 
in other landes (as euyl! woordes walke farre) that the 

20 Kynges brother shoulde bee fayne to keepe Saynctuaryc 
For euerye manne wyll weene, that no manne wyll so dooe 
for noughte. And suche euyll oppinyon once fastened in 
niennes heartes, hard it is to wraste oute, and maye growC 
to more grief than anye manne here canne diiiine. 

15 Wherefore mee thynketh it were not woorste to sende 
vnto the Quene, for the redresse of this matter, somme 
honourable trustye manne, suche as bothe tenderelh the 
Kynges weale, and the honoure of his covmsaile, and is 
also in fauoiire and credence wyth her. For al which con- 

30 sideracions, none seemeth mee more nietelye than oure 
reuerente father here presente, my Lorde Cardynall, who 
maye in this matter dooe moste good of anye manne, yf it 
please hym to take the payne. Whiche I douVfe 


his goodnesse he wyll rot refuse, for the Kyngcs sake and 
ours, and wealihe of the youngc Duke hymself, the kinges 
moste honourable brother, and after my soueraygne Lorde 
hjmself, my moste dere nephewe ; considered that thereby 
shall bee ceaseil the slaimderous rumoure and obloquye 
nowe goynge and the huiles auoyded that thereof mighte 
ensue, and much rest and quyete growe to all the realmc. 
And yf shee bee percase so obstynate, and so preciselye 
sette vppon her own wyl, that neyther his wise and faithful 
aduertysemente canne moue her, nor any mannes reason i. 
coolcnt her; then shall wee by myne aduyse, by the Kynges 
authoiitye, fetche hym out of that prisone, and brynge hym 
lo his noble presence, in whose contynuall coutnpanye he 
rill) bee so well cherished and so honourablye entreated, 
ihat all the worlde siiall. to our honor and her reproch, 
jKrceiue that it was onelye iralyce, frowardcnesse, or foly, 
ihat caused her to keepe him there. This is my minde 
in (his matter for this time, excepte any of your Lorde- 
shippes anye tliinge pereeiue to the contrarye. For neuer 
shal I by Gods grace so wedde my selfe to myne own wyll, 
but that I shall bee readye tp chaunge it vppon youre 
better aduyses. 

When the protectoure hadde said, at the counsayl 
affyrmed that the mocion was good and reasonable, and to 
the kynge and the Duke his brother honourable, and a ^5 
thing that should cease greate raurmure in the realme, if 
the mother might be by good meancs endiiced to delyuer 
hym. Whiche thynge the Archebishoppe of Yorke, whome 
tliey all agreed also to bee thereto moste conuenyente, 
looke vppon hym to rooue her, and therein to dooe hys 30 
vttermoste deuowre. Howe bee it if shee coulde bee in 
no wyse entreated with her good wyll to delytier hym, then 
^e he? and suche olher as were or the jpiritualtye 


»6 TffE HISTOS/E OP f ■ ■ 

present, that it were not in anye wyse to be attempted to 
take him oiite agaynste her wil. For it would bee a thyoge 
that shoulde tciurne to the greate grudge of all menne, and 
hyghe dyspleasuie of Codde, yf the priueledge of that holye 
5 place should nowe bee broken. Whichc hadde 

Eomanyeyearesbeekeple,whychebothe Kynges 
and Popes soo good hadde graunted, so many hadde con- 
firmed, and whiche holye grounde was more then fyue hun- 
dred yeare agoe by Saincte Peter his own parsone in spirite, 

lo accoumpanyed with greate multitude of aungelles, by nyghte 
so specyallye halowed and dedicate to Godde, (for the proofe 
wherof they haue yet in the Abbay Sainct Peters cope to 
shewe) that from that tyme hytherwarde, was there neuer 
so vndeuowte a Kinge, that durst that sacred place violate, 

15 or so holye a Bishopjie that dursle it presume to consecrate. 
And therefore (quod the Archebishoppe of Yorke) Godde 
forbydde that aiiye manne shoulde, for anye thynge earthlye, 
enterpryse to brcake the immuniiee and libertye of that 
sacred Sainctuary, that hath bene the safegarde of so many 

ao a good mannes life. And I truste (quod he) with Gods 
grace, we shal not nede it. But for ani maner nede, Xtm 
would not we shoulde dooe it I truste that shee shall bQfH 
with reason contented, and all ihynge in good man^H 
obtayned. And yf it happen that I brynge it not so^^H 

25 passe, yet shall I towarde it so farrefoorlh dooe my be^^| 

that ye shall all well perceiue that no lacke of ray deuo^^f 

but the mothers drede and womannishe feare shall ^^H 

the ^H 

Womannishe feare, naye womannishe frowardene^^B 

30 {quod the Duke of Buckyngham.) I'or I dare take^^f 
vppon my soule, she well knoweth she needeth no si^^| 
thyng to feare, either for her sonne or for her selfe. ^^H 
&s for her, here Is no manne that will be at warre ^I^H 


women. Woulde God some of ihe men of her kynne were H 
women too, and then shoulde al bee soone in reste. Howe H 
bee it there is none of her kinne the lesse loued, for that 1 
they bee her kiiitie, but for their owne euill deseruinge. J 
And nathelesse if we loued neither her nor her kinne, yet d 
were there no cause to thinke that we shoulde hate the H 
kynges noble brother, to whose Grace wee ouresclfe bee I 
of kynne. Whose honoure if shee as muchc desyred as ■ 
oure dishonoure, and as muche regarde tooke to his wealthe, \ 
as to her owne will, she woulde bee as lotbe to suffer him (« 
from the kinge, as anye of vs bee. For if shee haue anye \ 
witte, (as woulde Godde she hadde as good will as she 
halhe shrewde witte) she reckonelh her selfe no wiser then 
shee thinketh some that bee here, of whose faithefuU mynde 
she nothing doubteth, but vcrelye beleueth and knoweth, 15 
that they woulde bee as sorye of his harme as her selfe, 
and yet would haue hym from her yf she byde there. And 
wee al! (I thinke) conlente, that bothe bee with her, yf 
she come thence and bide in suche place where they maie 
with their honoure bee. 

Nowe then yf she refuse, in the deliueraunce of hym, 1 
to folowc the counsaile of them whose wisdom she knoweth, 
whose troulh she well trustelh, it is ethe to perceine, that 
frowardnesse letteth her, and not feare. But goe to, suppose 
that she feare (as who maye letle her to feare her c 
shadowe) the more she fearelh to delyuer hym, the i 
oughte wee feaie to leaue him in her handes. For if she 
caste suche fonde doubles, that shee feare his hurte; then . 
wyll she feare that hee shall bee fette thence. For she I 
will soone thinke, that if menne were sette (whiche Godde J 
forbydde) vppon so greate a mischiefe, the saintuarye woulde 
litle let them. Which good menne mighle, as mee thynk- 

Bithout sinne sommewhat lesse regarde then they^ 


Nowe then if she double leste hee mighte bee feW 
from her, is il not Ukelye ynoughe that she shall sende j 
somme where out of thu reatme ? Verely I looke for n 
other. And I double not but shee nowe as sore niyn* 

5 it, as wee the ktte thereof And yf she myghte hapl 
to brynge that to passe, (as it were no greate maislrye, 
lettinge her alone) all the worlde woulde saye (hat i 
wer a wyse sort of counsaylers aboule a kyoge, that S 
his brother bee caste awaye vnder oure noses. And tbi 

o fore I ensure you faythfully for my mynde, T wyll rati 
maugrye her mynde, fetche hym awaye, then leaue 1 
ther, till her frowardnes or fond feare conuay hym 
And yet will I breake no Saintuurye therefore. For 
sithe the priuileges of that place and other lyke, haue b 

5 of long continued, I am not he that woulde bee about^ 

breake them. And in good faith if they were nowe; 

begynne, 1 woulde not bee he that shoulde bee about^ 

make them. Yet wyll I not saye naye, but | 

it is a deede of pitie, that suche menne, as I 

o sea or theyr euill dettours haue broughle in pouertye, shoid 
haue somme place of libertye, to keepe their bodies outa 
the daunger of their cruell creditours. And also yf the ci 
happen (as it bathe done) to corame in questyon, whyie eyt 
parte taketh other as traylours, I wyll well there bee Si 

5 places of refuge for bothe. But as for theeues, of whi 
these places bee full, and which neuer fall fro the c 
after thei once fallc thereto, it is pitie the saintuarye shoiJ 
serue them. And muche more mannequeller 
Godde badde to take from the aulter and kyll thciif 

o theyr murther were wylfuU. And where it is othem 
there neede wee not the sayntuaryea that God appoid 
in the olde lawe. For yf eyther necessitie, hys oa 

,. defence, or rnisfortune drawe hym to that dede, a 

■ **}Wff JtrCtMKDB THS THFRDE. 39" 

seratth, which eylher the law graunleth of courac, or the 
Kynge of pille maye. 

Then looke me nowe how few saintuarye menne there 
bee, whome any fauourable necessitie compelled to gooe 
thyther. And then see on the tother syde what a sorte , 
there be commoniye therein, of them whocne wylfuU vn- 
thriftynesse hathe bronghte to nought. 

What a rabble of theiies, murlherers, and malicious 
heyghnous traitours, and that in twoo places specyallye. 
The tone at the elbowc of the citie, the tother in the verye i 
bowelles. I dare well auowe it, waye the good that they 
dooe with the hurie that commeth of them, and ye shall 
fynde it muche better to lacke bothe, then haue boihe. 
And this I saye, although they were not abused as ihey 
nowe bee, and so longe haue bee, that I feate mee euet il 
they wyll bee whyle menne bee afearde to sette theyr 
handes to the mendement ; as thoughe Godde and Saincie 
Peter were the patrons of vngracious lyuingc, 

Nowe vnthriftes ryote and runne in dutte, vppon ihe 
boldenesse of these places; yea and ryche menne Theatintof " 
runne thlihcr with poore rocnnes goodes, there «"""»"='• 
they builde, there thei Bpende and hidde their creditoats 
gooe whistle them. Mens wyues runne thither with theyr 
housebandes plate, and saye ihei dare not abyde with theyr 
housbandes for beaiinge. Theues brj'ng thyther theyr stolien 2, 
goodes, and there lyue thereon. There deuise thei newe 
roberies, nightlye they sleale out, they robbe and reue and 
kyll, and come in again as though those places gaue them 
not onely a safe garde for the hamie they haue done, but 
a licence also to dooe more. Howe bee it muche of this 3 
mischiefe, if wyse menne woiilde sette their handes to it, 
I mvghte bee amended, with greate thank of God and no 
HMHAib of the priueledge. The rcsidew sith so long agoc 


I wote neere what Pope and what Prince, more pytd 
then politique, haihe graunted it, and other menne : 
of a. certayne relygious feare liaue not broken it, let' 
take a payne therewith, and lette it a Goddes narae st 
5 in force, as farrefoorth as reason wyll. Whiche is not fij 
so farrefoorth as may seme to lette vs of the fetchyJ 
foorthe of this noble manne to hys honoure and wealg 
oute of that pLice in whiche he neither is, nor canne bJ 
Saynctuary manne. 

lo A Sainctuarye serueth alway to defende the bodi^ 
that manne that standeth in daunger abrode, not of gi 
hurte onelye, but also of lawful hurte. For agaynste v 
full harmes neuer Pope nor Kynge entended to priueleil 
anye one place. For that priueledge hath euery pH 

15 Knoweth anye manne anye place wherein it is lawefull fl 
manne to dooe another wrong? That no manne vnlawi 
take hurt, that libenie, the Kynge, the lawe, and 1 
nature forbiddeth in euery place, and maketh to that regards* 
for euerye manne euerye place a Saintuarye. But where 

20 a man is by lawful meanes in perill, there needelh he the 
tuicion of some special priuilege, which is the only ground 
and cause of al saintuaryes. From whiche necessitie this 
noble prince is far. Whose loue to his king nature and 
kinred proueth, whose innocence to al the world his tender 

25 youth proueth. And so saintuary as for him, neither none 
he nedeth, nor also none can haue. Men come not to 
saintuary as they come to baptisme, to require it by their 
godfathers. He must ask it himself that rauste haue it 
And reason, sithe no man hath cause to haue Jt, but whose 

30 conscience of his own faut maketh liym faine ncede to 
require it, what wil then hath yonder babe? which and if 
he had discrecion to require it, yf nede were, 1 dare saye 
«ould nowe bee right angry with them that kepe him tj 

im thM^ 


And I woukie thynke withoiile anye scruple of conscience, 
without any breache of piiueledge, to bee sommewhat more 
homely with them that be there saintiiary men in dede. 
For if one go to saintiiary with another mannes goodes, 
why should not the kyng leauinge his boclye at Itbertie, 
satisfy the part[y] of his goodes euen within tlie saintuary? 
For neither king nor pope can geue any place such a 
priueledge, tiiat it s!iall discharge a man of his detlcs being 
able to paye. 

And with that diners of the dergy that wer present, n 
whither thei said it for his pleasure, or as tliei thought, 
agreed plainly, that by the law of God and of the church 
the goodes of a saintuarye man shoulde be. deliuered 
in paiment of his dels, and stoUen goodes to the owner, 
and onelye Hbertie reserued him to geat his lyuing with i; 
the labour of his handes. Verely (quod the duke) I thinke 
you say very trueth. And what if a mannes wyfe will take 
saintuary, because she lyste to ranne from her husbande ; 
I woulde wene if she can allege none other cause, he may 
lawfuUye, without any displeasure to sainct Peter, take her 
out of S. Peters chnrche by the anne. And yf no body 
maye bee taken out of saintuarye that sayth he wyll bide 
there; then yf a childe will take saintuarie, because hee 
feareth to goe to schole, hys mayster must lette hym alone. 
And as simple as that saumple is, yet is there lesse reason 25 
in our case, then in that. For therein though it be a 
childishe fearc, yet is ther at the leastwise some feare. 
And herein is there none at alL And verelye I haue often 
heard of saintuarye menne. But I neucr heard erste of 
saintuarye chyldren. And therefore as for the conclusion 30 
of my minde, whoso maie haue deserued to needs It, yf 
thei thinke it for theyr suretye, letie them kepe it. But 

ituan'e manne, that neither hath _ 



wUedom to desire it, nor malice to deserue it, wliosc lyfe 
or Kbertyc can by no lawful! processe siande in jeopardie. 
And he that taketh one oute of saintuary to dooe hyra 
good, I saye plainely that he breaketh no saintuary. 
S When the Duke liadde done, the lemporall nienne whole, 
and good part of the spirituall also, thinking none hurt enhlf 
ment towarde the younge babe, condescended in effecte, 
that if he were not deliuered, he should be fetched. How- 
beit they thoughte it all beste, in the auoydyng of all nnaner 

10 of rumour, that the Lorde Cardinall shoulde fyrst assaye to 
geat him with her good will. And ihervppon all the counsaile 
came vnto the sterrechaumber at Westminster. And the 
Lorde Cardinal), leauinge the protectour with the counsell in 
the sterrechaumber, departed into tlie saintuary to the Quene, 

'S with diuers other lordes with him, were it for the respecte 
of hys lionoure, or that she shoulde by presence of so many 
perceyue that this erande was not one mannes nninde, or 
were it for that the protectour entended not in this matter 
to trust any one manne alone, or els that if she finally wer 

20 determined to kepe him, somme of that company had 
happely secret instruccion incontinent, raagry her minde, to 
take him and to leaue her no respite to conuaye hj-m, 
whiche she was likely to mind after this matter broken to 
her, yf her time would in any wyse seme her. 

'5 When the Quene and these Lordes were comme together 
in presence, the Lorde Cardinall shewed vnto her that it 
was thought vnto the protectour and vnto the wliole coiai- 
sayle, that her kepyng of the kinges brother in that place 
was the thing whiche highlye souned, not onelye to the 

30 greate rumoure of the people and theyr obloquye, but abo 
to the importable griefe and displeasure of the kinges royall 
majestic. To whose grace it were as singuler coumforte 
to haue his naturall brother in company, as i 

5 it was tbe^^ 




bothe dishonour, and all theirs and hers also, to suffer hym 
in sainluarye. As though the tone brother stode in danger 
and perill of the tother. And he shewed her that the 
counsel therfore had sent him vnto her, to require ber the 
deliuerye of him, that bee might bee brought vnto the , 
kinges presence at his libertie, oute of that place whicbe 
they reckoned as a prisone. And llier should he 1 
demeaned accordyng to his estate. And she in this doii 
should bothe dooe great good to the realme, pleasure to 
the counsell and profyt to her selfe, succour to her frendes i 
that were in distres, and ouer that {which he wiste well she 
speciallye tenderid) not onely great comfort and honour 
to the king, but also to the yong duke himself, whose both 
great welthe it were to bee together, as well for many 
greater causes, as also for their both disporte and recrea- la 
don ; which thing the !ord[es] estemed no slight, thoughe it 
seme lyghte, well pondering that their youthe without t 
creacioD and play cannot endure, nor any estraunger, for 
the conuenience of their both ages and estates, so metely 
in that pointe for any of them as eitlier of them for ai 

My lord {quod the quenc) I saye not nay, but that it 
were very conuenient that this gentilman whom Tht Qu=ii« 
ye require were in the company of the kinge bys ^'"''"='=- 
brother. And in good faith me thinketh it were as great 2 
commoditie to them botli, as for yet a while, to ben in 
custody of their mother, the tender age consydred of the 
elder of them both, but speciall the yonger, which besides ■ 
his infancie that also nedeth good loking to, hath a while 
ben so sore diseased, vexed with sicknes, and is so newly 3^ 
rather a iyttle amended then well recouered, that I dare put 
no parson erthly in trust with his keping but my selfe onely, 
idering fhat there is, as phisicians saye, and as we also 



34 THE fflSTORTE OP 1 

finde, double the perill in the recidiuacion that was in the 
first sicknes, ivith which disease nature, being forelaborid 
foreweried and weaked, waxeth the lesse able to beare out 
a new surfet. And albeit there might be founden other, 
S that would happely doe theyr best vnto him ; yet is there 
none that either knoweth better how to order him, then 
I that so long haue kept him ; or is more tenderly like to 
cherishe him, then hys own mother that bare him. 

No man denieth, good madam, (quod the Cardinal) but 

10 that your grace were of all folke most necessary aboute your 
children ; and so woulde al the counsell not onely be con- 
tent, but also glad that ye were, if it might stand with your 
pleasure to be in such place as might stande with their 
honour. But yf you appoint your selfe to tary here, then 

15 thinke they yet more conuenicnC that the duke of Yorke 
wer with the king honorably at his liberie to the comfort 
of them both, then here as a saintuary man to their both 
dishonour and obloquy ; sith there is not alwaye so great 
necessitie to haue the childe bee with the mother, but that 

20 occasion may sometime be such, that it should be more 
expedient to kepe him els where. Which in this well 
appereth that at suche time as your derest sonne, then 
prince and now king, should for his honour and good order 
of the countrey kepe householde in Wales faire out of your 

15 company, your grace was well contente therewytli your 

Not very well content, quod the Queue. And yet the 
case is not like ; for the tone was then in helthe, and 
the tother is now sike. In which case I merueile greatly 

30 that my lord protectour is so disirous to haue him in his 
keping, where if the child in his sicknes miscaried by nature, 
yet might he runne into slaunder and suspicion or fraude. 
And where they call it a thinge so sore against my chM 


honour and theirs also that he bydeth in this place ; it 
is all their honours there to suffer him byde, where no 
irianne doubteth hee shall be boste kepte. And that is 
here, while I am here, whiche as yet intende not to come 
forthe and jubarde my selfe after other of my frendes; 
which woulde God wer rather here in suertie with me, then 
1 were there in jubardy with them. 

Whye Madame (quod another Lorde) know you any thing 
why thei should be in jubardye ? Nay verely sur, quod shee, 
nor why ihey should be in prison neither, as they now be. i 
But it is I trow no great maruaile though I fere, lest those 
that haue not letted to put them in duresse without colour 
wil let as lyile to procure their distruccion without cause. 

The Cardinall made a countinance to the tother LorS, 
that he should harp no more vpon that string. And then i 
said he to the Quene, that he nothing doubted, but that those 
lOrdes of her honorable kinne, which as yet remained vnder 
arrest, should \-pon the matter examined do wel ynough. 
And as toward her noble person, neither was nor coulde 
be any maner jubardy. Whereby should I truste that 
(quod tiic Quene), In that I am giltlesP As though they 
were gilty. In that I am with their enemies better beloued 
then thei ? When they hate them for my sake. In that 
I ana so nere of kinne to the king? And how farre be 
they of, if that would helpe, as God send grace it hurt not. 
And therfore as for me, I purpose not as yet to departe 
hence. And as for this gentilman my sonne, I inynde 
that he shal be where I am till I see further. For I assure 
you, for that I se some men so gredye withowte any sub- 
staunciall cause to haue him, this maketh me much the 
more farder to deliuer him. Truely madame, quod he, 
and the farder that you be to delyuer him, the farder bene 
men to suffer you to kepe hym, lest your causeles 



fere might cause you ferther to conuay him. And many 
be there that thinke that he can haue no priuelege in this 
place, which neither can haue wil to aske it, nor malyce to 
deseme it. And therefore they recken no pryuilege broken, 
5 though thei fetche him out. Which, if ye fynally refuse 
to dehuer him, I verely thynke tliey will. So much drede 
hath my Lorde his vncle, for the tender loue he herelh 
him, lest your grace shold hap to send him awaye. 

A syr, quod the Queue, hath the protectour so tender 

lo zcle to him, that he fereth nothing but lest he 

should escape hym ? Thiuketh he that I would 

sende hym hence, which neyther is in the plight to scnde 

out, and in what place coulde I recken him sure, if he 

be not sure in this, the sentuarye whereof was there neuer 

i^tiraunt yet so deuelish, that durste presume to breake? 
And I trust God [is] as strong now to withstande his ad- 
uersaries, as euer he was. But my Sonne can deserue no 
sentuary, and therefore he cannot haue it. For soth he 
hath founden a goodly glose, by wKiche that place thai 

20 may defend a thefe, may not saue an innocent. But he 
is in no jupardy nor hath no nede therof. Wold God 
he had not. Troweth the protector (I pray God he may 
proue a protectour) troweth he that I parceiue not where- 
unto his painted processe draweth? It is not lionorable 

25 that the duke bide here : it were comfortable for them 
both tliat he wer with his brother, because the king lack- 
eth a playfelowye, be ye sure. I pray God send them 
both better playfelowes than hym, that maketh so high a 
matter vpon such a trifling pretext : as though they coulde 

30 none be founden to playe with the kyng, but if his brother, 
that hath no lust to play for sicknes, come oute of sanctuary, 
out of hys sauegarde, to play with him. As though princes, 
s yonge as thei be, could not play but with iheir j 

their peuul 


or children could not play but with their kyrdred, wit[h] 
whom for the more part they agree much worse tlien wyth 
straungere. But the childe cannot require the priuelege. 
Who tolde hym so? He shal here him aske it and lie 

Howbeit this is a gay matter : Suppose he could not aske 
it, suppose he woulde not aske it, suppose hee woulde aske 
to goe owte, if I saye hee shall not, if I aske the priuilege 
but for my selfe, I say he that agaynst my wyll taketh 
out him, breaketh the sanctuary. Serueth this liberty for 
my person oulye, or for my goodes to ? ye maye not hence 
take my horsse fro me ; and maye you take my childe fro 
me ? he is also my warde, for, as my lerned counsell sheweth 
raee, sylh he halh nothing by discent holden by knightes 
seruice, the law maketh his mother his gardaine. 'ITien 
may no man, I suppose, take my warde fro me oute of 
sanctuarye, wythout the breche of the sanctuary. And if 
my pryuelege could not serue hym, nor he aske it for 
hymselfe, yet sythe the laive committeth to me the custody 
of him, I may require it for hym, excepte the lawe giue a 
childe a gardayne onely for his goodes and hys landes, 
discharging hym of the cure and saufe kepyng of hys body, 
for whych only both landes and goodes serue. 
"And if examples be sufficient to obtayne priue- hcrebfwmB 
ledge for my chylde, I nede not farre to seeke, nnd Ih^ma'rke 
For in thys place in which we now be (and whych itJIhyM.'More 
is now in questyon whyther my chylde may take i^,Kn''by'Sni 
benefyte of it) myne other sonne now kyng was t!ifiS^i'Ji^« 
bom, and kept in hys cradle, and preserued to ^^■^^ 
a more prosperous fortune, which I pray God ^''j^'" 
long to continu. And as all you know, this is 
not the first lyrae that I haue taken sanctuarye, for when 

.4ord my husbande was banished and thrust out of his 




38 THE mSTORlE OF ' 

kingdom, I fled hither being great with child, and here I 
bare the prynce. And when my lorde my husbande re- 
tourned safe again and had the victorye, than went I hence 
to welcome him home, and from hence I brought my babe 
5 the prynce vnto hys father, when he fyrste toke hym in hys 
armes. And I praye God tliat my sounes palace may be as 
great sauegard to bim now rayning, as thys place was some- 
time to the kindes enemye. In whych place I entend to 
kepe his brother sith, &c." 

10 Wherfore here intend I to kepe him, sins mans law 
serueth the gardain to kepe the infant The law of natm« 
wyll the mother kepe her childe. Gods law pryuclegeth 
the sanctuary, and the sanctuary my sonne, sith I fere to 
put hym in the protectours handes that hath hys brother 

15 already, and were, if bothe fayled, inheritour to the crowne. 
The cause of my fere hatb no man to doe to examine. 
And yet fere I no ferther then the law fereth which, as 
lemed men tell me, forbiddetli euery man the custody of 
them, by whose death he may inherite lesse lande then a 

sokingdome. I can no more, but whosoeuer he be that 
breketh this holy sanctuary; I pray God shorttly sende 
him nede of sanctuary, when he may not come to it For 
taken out of sanctuary would I not my mortall enemy 

25 The lord Cardinall perceiuing that the quene waxed 
euer the lenger the farder of, and also that she began to 
kindle and chafe, and speke sore biting wordes agiunst the 
protectour, and such as he neither beleued, and was also 
loth to here, he said vnto her for a finall conclusion, that 

30 he woulde no lenger dispute the matter. But if she were 

content to deliuer the duke to him and to the other lordes 

there present, he durst lay his owne body and souJe both 

■.in pledge, not onely for his suerty but also for hys est* 


And if she woulde giue them a resolute aunswere to the 
contrary, he would forthwith depart there with all, and 
shyfte whoso would with thys busynes afterwarde : for he 
neuer entended more to moue her in that matter, in which 
she thought that he, and all other also saue herselfe, lacked 
either wit or troulh. Wit, if they were so dul, that they 
coulde nothing perceiue what the protectour entended: 
trouthe, if they should procure her sonne to be delyuered 
into his handes, in whom thei shold perceyue toward the 
childe any euil intended. 

The quene with these wordes stode a good while 11 
great study. And for asmuch her semed the Cardinall 
more redy to depart, then some of the remnant, and the 
protectour himself redy at hand, so that she verely thought 
she coulde not kepe him there, but that hee shoulde i 
continent be taken thence : and to conuay him elswhere, 
neyther had sliee time to seme her, nor place determined, 
nor parsons appointed, all thinge vnredy thys message 
came on her so sodaynely, nothing lesse loking for ther 
to haue him fet out of sentuary, which she thought to be i^ 
now beset in such places about, that he coulde not be con- 
uaied out vntaken, and partly as slie thought it might 
fortune her fere to bee false, so well she waste it was either 
nedeles or bottles : wherfore if she shold nedes go from 
him, she dempte it beste to deliuer him. And ouer that 
the Cardinals faith she nothing doubted, nor of some oti 
lordes neither, whom she there saw. Which as she fered 
lest they might bee deceiuid ; so was she well assured they 
would not be coruptcd. Then thought she it should yet 
make them the more warely to loke to him, and the i 
sircumspectly to se to his surety, if she with her owne 
Jjandes beioke him to them of irusL And at the last she 
: yong duke by the hande, and said vnto the lordes ; 


■ My lord (quod she) and all my lordes, I neither z 
TTiwise to mistrust your wiltes, nor so suspicious to 
tniste your trouthes. Of which thing I purpose to make 
you such a proofe, as if either of both lacked in you, might 
5 tourne both roe to great sorowe, the realme to much harme, 
and you to gret reproche. For loe, here is (quod she) 
this gentilman, whom I doubt not but I could here kepe 
safe if I woulde, whatsoeuer any man say. And I doubt 
not also but ther be some abrode so deadly enemies vnto 

I o my blood, that if thei wist where any of it lay in their owne 
body, they would let it out. We haue also had experience 
Tii*d«ir=D( '^^t the desire of a kingdorae knoweth no kin- 
akiDgdonit jgjL The brother hath bene the brothers bane. 
And may the nepheus be sure of their vncle ? Eche of these 

15 children is others defence wliile they be asunder, and eche 
of their Hues lieth in the others body. Kepe one safe and 
both be sure, and nothing for them both more perilouse, then 
to be both in one place. For «hat wise merchaunt aduCTji 
tureth all his good in one ship? All this not with standi 

2o here I deliuer htm, and hys brother in him, to kepe, inl 
your handes, of whome I shall aske them both afore God 
and the world. Faithful! ye be, that wot I wel, and I know 
wd you be wise. Power and strenght, to kepe him if ye 
list, neither lacke ye of yourself, nor can lack heipe in this 

a- cause. And if ye cannot elswhcre, then may yoit leue 
him here. But only one tiling I beseche you, for the trust 
that his father put in you euer, and for the trust that I 
put in you now, that as farre as ye thinke that I fere to 
muche, be you wel ware that you fere not as farre to Hitle. 

30 And therewitball she said vnto the child : Farewel, my o»-n 
swete sonne, God send you good keping, let me kis you 
* yet ere you goe, for God knoweth when we shal kis 
togither agayne. And therewith she kissed him. 

lim, a^^_ 

blessed him, tuined her back and wept and went her waj-, 
leauing the childe weping as fast. When the lord Cardinal 
and these other lordes with him, had receiued this yong 
duke, thei brought him into the sterrecharaber odissimn- 
where the protectour toke him in his armes and '^"™- 1 

kissed him with these wordes ; Now welcome, my lord, euen 
with al my very haiL And he sayd in that of likelihod as 
bethought Thereupon forthwith they brought him to the 
kynge his brother into the bishoppes palice at Powles, and 
from thence through the citie honorably into the Tower, i,iit ft 
of which after that day they neuer came abrode. 

•When the protector had both the children in his 
handes, he oiiened himself more boldJy, both 
to certaine other men, and also chiefely to the w^Jwino 
duke of Buckingham. Although I know that ^n^'^tiwk '. 
many thought that this duke was priuy to al ii^vm'm^ 
the protectours counsel, euen from the begin- \ 
ning, and some of the ]irotectoiirs frendes said [ 
that the duke was the first mouer of the pro- S^h™'r 
tectoure to this matter, sending a priuie mes- *h|c''i'e« 
senger vnto him, streight after king Edwards 
death. But other again, which knewe beHer the suttle 
of the protectour, deny that he euer opened his enterprise to 
the duke, vntill he had brought to passe the thinges before 
rehereed. But when he had imprisoned the quenes kinsc- ad 
folkes, and gotten bothe her sonnes into his owne handes, 
than hee opened the rest of his purpose with lesse fere 
to them whom he thought mete for tlie matter, and specially 
to the duke ; who being wonne to his purpose, he thought 
his strength more then halfe encreascd. The mat 
broken vnto the duke by suttell folkes, and such as were 
their crafte maisters in the handling of such wicked deuises ; 
^declared vnto him, that the yong king was offended 



with him for his kinsfolkes sakes, and that if he wi 
euer able, he would reuenge them. Who wold prick him 
forward therunto, if they escaped (for they would remembre 
their imprisonment) or els if the! wer put to death, without 
S doubte the yonge king wold be careful for their deathes, 
whose imprisonment was greuous vnto him. And that 
with repenting the duke should nothing aualle ; for there 
was no way left to redetne his offence by benefites; but 
he should soner distroy himself than sane the king, who 

10 with his brother and his kinsefolkes he saw in such places 
imprisoned, as the protectour might with a beck distroy 
them al ; and that it were no doubte but he woulde do it 
in dede, if there wer any new enterprise attempted. And 
that it was likely that as the protectour had prouided priuy 

IS garde for himself, so had he spialles for the duke, and 
traines to catche hym, if he should be againste him, and 
that paraduenture from them whom he least suspected. 
For the state of thinges and the disposicions of men wer 
than such, that a man could not wel tell whom he might 

2otruste, or whom he might feare. These thinges and such 
like, being beaten into the dukes minde, brought him to 
that pointe, that where he had repented the way that he 
had entred, yet wold he go forth in the same ; and since 
he had ones begon, he would stoutly go through. 

25 therefore to thys wicked enterprise, which he beleued co» 
not bee voided, hee bent himselfe and went through 
determined, that since the comon mischief could not 
amended, he wold touroe it as much as he might to 
owne commodite. 

30 Than it was agreed that the protectour should haue th( 
dukes aide to make him king, and that the protectours 
onely lawful sonne should mary the dukes daughter, and 
that the protectour shold graunt him the quiet possession, 


the Erledome of Hertford, which he claimed as his enheti- 
taoce and could neuer obtain it in king F.dwardes time. 
Besides these requestes of the duke, the protcctour of hys 
owne tninde promised him a great quanlite of the kinges 
tresure and of his howsehold stuffe. And when they wer 
thus at a point betwene themselfes, they went about to pre- 
pare for the coronacyon of the yong king, as they would 
haue it seme. And that they might tume both the eies and 
inindes of men from perceiuing of their driftes other where, 
the lordes, being sent for from al parties of the realrae, came 1 
thick to that solemnite. But the protcctour and the dnke, 
after that that they had set the lord Cardinall, the Arche- 
bishoppe of Yorke than lorde Chauncellour, the Bishoppe 
of Ely, the lord Stanley and the lord Hastinges than lord 
chaniberleine, with many other noble men, * to commune i 
and deuise about the coronacion in one place ; as fast were 
they in an other place contryuyng the contrary, and to make 
the protectour kyng. To which counsel, albeit there were 
adhibit very few, and they very secret ; yet began there, here 
and there about, some maner ofmutteringamonge the people, 3 
as though al should not long be wel, though they neither 
wist what thei feared nor wherfore ; were it that before such 
great thioges mens hartea of a secret instinct of natui 
giueth them, as the sea without wind swelleth of himself 
somtime before a tempest ; or were it that some one man, 
happely somwhat perceiuing, filled mani men with suspicion, 
ihough he shewed few men what he knew. Hobeit 
what the dealing self made men to muse on the mater, 
though the counsell were close. For lille and little all folke 
withdrew from the Tower, and drew to Crosbies place in %<i 
Bishops gates strete wher the protectour kept his household, 
yjie protectour had the resort, the king in maner dessolate. 
for their busines made sute to them that 



bad the doing, some were by their frendes secretly warned, 
that it might happelye tourne them to no good, to be to 
much attendaunt about the king without the protectours 
appointment ; which remoiied also diuers of the princes olde 
5 setuantes from him, and set newe aboute him. Thus many 
thinges comming togither partly by chaunce, partly of pur- 
pose, caused at length, not comen people only thai wane 
with the winde, but wise men also and some lordes yeke, to 
marke the mater and muse theron : so ferforth that the 

lo lord Stanly, that was after Erie of Darbie, wisely mistrusted 
it, and saied vnto the lord Hasting, that he much misliked 
these tivo seuerall counsels. For while we {quod he) taike 
of one matter in the tone place, litle wote we wherof they 
talk in the tother place. My lord, (riuod the lord Hastinges) 

IS on my hfe neuer doute you. For while one man is there 

which is neuer thence, neuer can there be thinge ones 

minded that should sownde amisse toward me, but it should 

be in mine eares ere it were well oute of their mouthes. 

This ment he by Catesby, which was of his nere 

23 secret counsail, and whome ne ven famiUarly 

vsed, and In his most weighty matters put no man in so 
special trust, rekening bymself to no man so liefe, sith he 
well wist there was no man to him so much beholden as was 
thys Catesby, which was a man wel lerned in the lawes of 

25 this lande, and by the special fauour of the lorde chamberlen 
in good aucthoritie and much rule bare in al the county of 
Leceter where the Lorde Chamberlens power chiefly laye. 
But surely great pity was it, that he had not had either 
more trouthe or lesse wytte. For his dissiraulacion onelye 

30 kepte all that mischyefe vppe. In whome if the lord 
Hastinges had not put so speciall trust, the lord Stanley and 
he had departed with diueise other lordes, and broken all 
^e daunee, for many il signes that hee sawe, which he nov^^ 

^KVt? itYCirA^nm fWM thirde. 

const[rjues all to the beste. So suerly thoughte he that there 
could be none harme toward him in that counsaile entended 
where Catesby was. And of trouth the protectour and the 
Duke of Buckingham made very good semblaunce vnto the 
Lord Haslinges, and kept bim much in company, And 
vndoubtedly the protectour loued him wel, and loth was to 
haue loste him, sauing for fere lest his life sboulde haue 
quailed their purpose. For which cause he moued Catesby 
to proue wyth some words cast out afarre of, whither he 
could Ihinke it possible to winne the lord Hasting into their 
parte. But Catesby, whither he assayed him or assaied him 
not, reported vnto them, that he founde him so fast, and 
hard him speke so terrible woordes, that he durst no further 
brelte. And of trouth the lord Chamberlen of very trust 
shewed vnto Catesbye the mistrust that other began to haue 
in the mater. And therfore he, fering lest their mocions 
might with the lord Hastinges minishe his credence, wher- 
unlo onelyal the matter lenid, procured theprotectoinhastely 
to ridde him. And much the rather, for that he trusted by 
his deth to obtaine much of the rule that the lorde Hast- 
inges bare in his coimtrey ; the only desire whereof, was 
the allectiue that induced hira to be partener and one 
specyall contriuer of al this horrible treson. 

Whenipon sone after, that is to wit, on the Friday 
the — day of — many Lordes assembled in the Tiie munscii 
Tower, and there sat in counsaile, deuising the '" ''*"^' 
honorable solempnite of the tinges coronacion, of which 
ihe time appointed then so nere approchcd, that the 
pc^eauntcs and suttelties were' in making day and night 
at Westminster, and much vitaile killed therfore, that after- 
ward was cast away. These lordes so sytting togyther 
Cpmoning of thys matter, the protectour came in among 
■aboute ix. of the clock, saluting them cnrtesly, 


■d ^ 




excusyng hymself that he had ben from them so li 

lieng merely that he had bene a slepe that day. And 

little talking with them, he sayd vnto the Bishop of El 

My lord yon haue very Rood strawberies at your 

5 in Holberne, I require yoa let vs haue a tnesse of tl 

Gladly my lord, quod he, woulde God I had some betief 

thing as redy to your pleasure as that. And therwith in a1 

the hast he sent hys seruant for a messe of strauberies. The 

protectour sette thS lordes fast in comoning, and therupon 

lo prayeng them to spare hym for a little while departed 
thence. And sone, after one hower, betwene .x. and .sd. he^ 
returned into the chamber among them, al changed,' 
a wondetful soure angrye countenannce, knitting the broi 
frowning and froting and knawing on hys lippes, and so 

15 him do\vne in hys place; al the lordes much dismaied 
sore merueiling of this maner of sodain chaunge, and 
thing should him aile. Then when he had sitten slil 
while, thus he began : What were they worthy to haue, 
cotnpasse and ymagine the distraccion of me, being so 

zo of blood vnto the king and protectour of his riall pi 
and his realme? At this question, al the lordes sat 
astonied, rausyng much by whome thys question should 
ment, of which euery man wyst himselfe clere. Then 
lord chamberlen, as he that for the loue bet' 

25 thoughte he might be boldest with htm, aunswered and 
sayd, that thei wer worthye to bee punished as hcighnous 
traitors, what soeuer they were. And al the other affirmed 
the same. That is (quod he) yonder sorceres my brothers 
wife and other with her, meaning the quene. At these 

30 wordes many of the other Lotdes were gretly abashed that 
fauoured her. But the lord Hastinges was in his minde 
better content, that it was moued by her, then by any other 
whom he loued better. Albeit hys harte somewhat grudg( 



tliat he was not afore maHe of counsell in tiiis mat 
was of the taking of her k>Tired, and of their putting to 
death, wliich were by his assent before deuised to bee 
byhedded at Pountfreit, this seife same day, in which he 
was not ware that it was by other deuised, that himself 
ehould the same day be behedded at London, Then said 
the protectour; ye shal al se in what wise that sorci 
that other witch of her counsel, Shoris wife, with their 
offynile, haue by their sorcery and witchcraft wasted my 
body. And thcrwitJi he plucked vp hys doublet sleue to 
his elbow vpon his left arme, where he shewed a werish 
withered arme and small, as it was neuer other. And 
thereupon euery mannes mind sore misgaue them, well 
peiceiiiing that this matter was but a quarel, For wel thei 
wist, that the queue was to wise to go aboute any such 
(blye. And also if she would, yet wold she of all folke 
leste make Shoris wife of counsaile, whom of al women she 
most hated, as that concubine whom the king her husband 
had most loued. And also no man was there present, but 
wel knew that his harme was eucr such since his birth. 
Natheles the lorde Chamberlen aunswercd and sayd: cer- 
tainly my lorde if they haue so heinously done, thei be worthy 
heinouse punishement. What, quod the protectour, thou 
seruest me, I wene, with iffes and with andes, I tel the thei 
haue so done, and that I will make good on thy body, traitour. 
And therwith as in a great anger, he clapped his fist vpon 
ihe horde a great rappe. At which token giucn, one cried 
Treason without the c[h]ambre. Therewith a dore clapped, 
and in come there rushing men in barneys as many as the 
chamhre might hold. And anon the protectour sayd to the 
loide Hasiioges: I arest the, traitour. Wjiat. roe, my Lorde? 
quod he. Yea the, traitour, quod the protectour. And 
i^£^L.^ii9.«Je Steodley which shroolte at 



siroke and fel vnder the table, or els his bed had ben clefte 
to the tethe : for as shortely as he shranke, yet 
Siandity ranne the blood aboute hys eares. Then were 

""'" ' they al quickly bestowed in diuerse chambres, 

5 except the lorde Chambcrlen, whom the protectour bade 
spede and shryue hym apace, for by saynt Poule (quod he) 
I wil not to dinner til I se thy hed o£ It botcd him not to 
aske why, but heuely he toke a priest at aduenture, and 
made a short shrift, for a longer would not be suffered, the 

lo protectoui made so much hast to dyner; which he might 
not go to til this wer done for sauing of his othe. So was 
he brought forth into the grene beside the chappel within 
the Tower, and his head laid down vpon a long log of 
timbre, and there striken of, and afterward his body with 

15 the hed entred at Windsore beside the body of kinge Ed- 
ward, whose both soules out Lord pardon. 

A merueiiouse case is it to here, either the waminges 
of that he shoulde haue voided, or the tokens of that he 
could not voide. For the self night next before his death, 

20 the lord Standley sent a trustie secret messenger vnto him 

at midnight in al the hast, requiring \\yui to rise and lyde 

away with hym, for he was disposed vtterly no lenger to 

bide J he had so fereful a dreme, in which him 

Staiiky'i thoughte that a bore with his tuskes so raced 

^5 "" ■ them both hi the heddes, that the blood ranne 

aboute both their shoulders. And fotasmudi as the pro- 
tector gaue the bore for his cognisaunce, this dreme made 
so fereful an impression in his hart, that he was throughly 
determined no lenger to tary, but had his horse redy, if ihe 

go lord Hastinges wold go with !iim to ride so far yet the same 

night, that thei shold be out of danger ere dai. Ey, good lord, 

quod the lord Hastinges to this messenger, leneth mi lord 

L thi master so much to such trifles, and hath such faith ia 

dremes, which either his own fere fantasieth or do risf 
nightes rest by reson of his da)'e thoughtes ? Tel hii 
plaine witchraft to beleue in suche dremes ; which if they 
wer tokens of thinges to come, why thinketh he not that we 
might be as hkely to make them true by our going if we 
;vere caught and brought back (as frendes fayle fleers), for 
thei. had the bore a cause hkely to race vs with his tuskes, 
as folke that fled for some falshed, wherfore either is there 
no peryl ; nor none there is in dede ; or if any be, it is 
rather in going then biding. And if we should, nedes cost, 
fall in perill one way or other ; yet had I leuer that men 
should se it wer by other mens falshed, then thinke it were 
either our owne faulte or faint hart. And iherfore go to thy 
master, man, and commende me to Iiim, and pray him be 
mery and haue no fere : for I ensure hym I am as sure of 
the man that he woteth of, as I am of my own hand. God 
sende grace, sir, quod the messenger, and went his way. 

Certain is it also, that in the riding toward the Tower, 
the same morning in which he was behedded, his hors twise 
or thrice stumbled with him almost to the falling ; which 
thing albeit eche man wote wel daily happenetb to them to 
whom no such mischaunce is toward, yet hath it ben, of an 
olde rite and custome, obserued as a token often times 
notably foregoing some great misfortune. Now this that 
foloweth was no warning, but an eneraiouse scorne. The 
same morning ere he were vp, came a knight unto hi 
it were of curtesy to accompany hym to the counsaik 
of trouth sent by the protector to hast him thithenvard, wyth 
whom he was of secret confederacy in that purpose, a meane 
man at that time, and now of gret auctorite. This knight 
when it happed the lord Chamberlen by the way to stay his 
horse, and comen a while with a priest whome he met 
jwer strete, brake his tale and said merely to him; 


It ^ 


\Vhat, my lord, I pray you come oh, whereto talke you so 
with that priest, you haue no nede of a pri[e]st yet; and ther* 
with be laughed vpon him, as though he would say, ye shal 
haue sone. But so htle wist that tolher what he ment, and 
5 so httle mistrusted, that he was neuer merier nor neuer so 
full of good hope in his life ; which self thing is often sene 
a signe of chaunge. But I shall rather let anye thinge passe 
me, then the vain sureti of mans mind so nere his deth. 
Vpon the very Tower wharfe, so nere the place where his 

lo hed was of so sone after, there met he with one Hastinges, 
a purseuant of his own name. And of their meting in tliat 
place, he was put in remembraunce of an other time, in 
which it had happened them before to mete in like maner 
togither in the same place. At which other lyme the lord 

15 Chamberlein had been accused vnto king Edward, by the 
lord Riuers the quenes brother, in such wise that he was for 
the while {but it lasted not long) farre fallen into the kinges 
indignacion, and stode in gret fere of himselfe. And for 
asrauch as he nowe met this purseuant in the same place, 

zo that jubardy so wel passed, it gaue him great pleasure to 
talke with him thereof with whom he had before talked 
thereof in the same place while he was therin. And 
therfore he said ; Ah Hastinges, art thou remembred when 
I met thee here ones with an heuy hart? Yea, my lord, 

25 (quod he) that remembre I wel : and thanked be God 
they gate no good, nor ye none harme thereby. Thou 
wouldest say so, quod he, if thou knewest as much 
know, which few know els as yet and moe shall shoi 
That ment he by the lordes of the quenes kindred that 

30 taken before, and shonld that day be behedded at Pounfrdft 
which he wel wyst, but nothing ware that the axe hang ouer 
his oivn hed. In faith, man, quod he, I was neuer so sory, 
T neuer stode in so great dread in my life, as I did w] 


tbon and I met hera And Io,liow the world is turned, now 
stand mine enemies in llie daunger {as thou maiat hap to 
here more hereafter) aiid I neuer in my life so mery nor 
neuer in so great suerty. O good God, the blindnes of our 
morlall nature, when he most feared, he was in good suerty. 
when he rekened him self surest, he lost his life, and that 
within two hoivres after. Thus ended this hon- -rhe dEsmp- 
orable man, a good knight and a gentle, of gret Lord"'^''"' 
aucthorite with his prince, of lining somewhat Husiingen. 
dessolate, plaine and open to his enemy, and secret to his 10 
frcnd : elh to begile, as he that of good hart and corage 
forestudied no perilles. A louing man and passing wel be- ■ 
loued. Very fairhful, and trusty ynough, trusting to much. I 
Now flew the fame of this lordes death swiftly through the 
citie, and so forth farder about like a winde in enery mans 15 
ere. But the protector immediatelye after diner, entending 
to set some colour vpon the matter, sent in al the hast for 
many sembstaunclal men out of the city into the Tower. 
And at their comming, himself with the Duke of Bukingham, 
stode hamesed in old il-faring briginders, such as no man 
shold wene that thei wold vouchsafe to haue put vpon their 
backes, except that some sodaine necessitie had constrained 
them. And then the protectour shewed them, that the lor[d] 
chamberlain, and other of his conspiracy, had contriued to 
haue sodeinly destroide him and the duke, ther that same 
day in the counsel. And what thei intended further was as 
yet not well knowen. Of which their treson he neuer had 
knowlage before x. of the clock the same forenone. \Vhiche 
sodajn fere draue them to put on for ther defence such har- 
neis as came next to hande. And so had God holpen them, 30 
that the mischief turned vpon them that wold haue done it. 
And this he required them to report, Eueri man answered 
t.feir, as though no man mistrusted the mater which of 





trouth no man beleued. Yet for the further appesing of: 
peoples mind, he sent imtnediadi after diner m al the 
The protcHors ^"^ herodc of armes, with a proclamacion to be 
prutiamatioD. jjjgjje through the city in the kinges name, con- 
5 teyning that the lord Hastinges, with diuers other of his 
traytorous purpose, had before conspired that same day 
to haue slaine the lord protector and the duke of Buck- 
ingham sitting in the counsel, and after to haue taken 
vpon them to rule the king and the realm al their plea- 

10 sure, and therbi to pil and spoil whom thei list \-ncon- 
troled. And much mater was ther in that proclamacion 
deuised, to the slaunder of the lord chamberlain, as that he 
was an euil counseller to the kinges father, intising him to 
many thinges highlye redounding to the minishing of his 

15 honor, and to the vniuersal hurt of his realm, by his euyl 
company, sinister procuring, and vngracious ensample, as 
wel in many other thinges as in the vicious liuing both with 
many other, and also specialli with Shores wifej which was 
one also of his most secret counsel of this heynous treson, 

20 so that it was the lesse meruel, if vngracious liuyng brought 
him to an vnhappy ending ; which he was now put vnto, 
by the most drede commaunderaent of the kinges highnes 
and of his honorable and faithful counsel, bothe for his 
demerites, being so openli taken in his falsli conceiued 

^5 Ireson, and also lest the delaying of his esecucion might 
haue encoraged other mischiuous parsons, partners of his 
conspiracy, to gether and assemble Ihemself together in 
raakyng some gret commocion for his deliueraunce, whose 
hope now being by his wel deserued deth politikely re- 

50 pressed, al the realm shold bi Gods grace rest in good 
quiete and peace. Now was this proclamacion made 
within ii. houres after that he was beheded, and it was so 
rfuriously indited, and so fair writen in parchment in so 

mj^s THE ththde. 

53 ' 

a set handc, and thenvith of it self so long a processe, that 
eueri child might wel perceiue that it was prepared before. 
For al the time betwene his death and the proclaming could 
scant haue suffised vnto the bare wryting alone, all had it 
bene but in paper and scribled forth in hast at aduenture. 
So that ■i'pon the proclaming therof, one that was scole 
master of Poules of chounce standing by, and comparing 
the shortnes of the time with the length of the matter, said 
vnto them that stode about him, here is a gay goodly cast 
foule cast awai for hast. And a merchant answered hym, i 
that it was writen by profecy. Now then by and bi, as it 
wer for anger, not for couetise, the protector sent into the 
house of Shores wife (for her husband dwelled 
not with her) and spoiled her of al that euer 
she had, aboue the value of ii. or iii. M. marks, and sent i 
her body to prison. And when he had a while laide vnto 
her, for the maner sake, that she went about to bewitcli 
him, and that she was of counsel with the lord chamber- 
lein to destroy him: in conclusion, when that no colour 
could fasten vpon these matters, then he layd heinously 2 
to her charge, the thing that herself could not deny, that 
al the world wist was true, and that natheles euery man 
laughed at to here it then so sodainly so highly taken, that 
she was nought of her body. And for thys cause (as a 
goodly continent prince, clene and fauitles of himself, sent 2 
oute of heaueu into this vicious world for the amende- 
ment of mens maners) he caused the bishop of London to 
put her to open penance, going before the crosse in proces- 
sion upon a Sonday with a taper in her hand. In which 
she went in countenance and pace demure so womanly, a 
albeit she were out of al array saue her kyrtle only; yet 
went she so fair and louely, namelye while the wondering of 
i/people caste a comly rud in her chokes (of whiche she , 


before had most misse) that her great shame wan her much 

praise. And many good folke also, that hated her liuing, 

and glad wer to se sin corrected, yet pitied thei more her 

penance, then rcjoyced therein, when thci considred that 

5 the protector procured it, more of a corrupt intent then 

ani vertuous affecioti. This woman was bom in 

dm of Shores London, worshipfully frended, honestly brought 

vp, and very wel marj*ed, sauing somewhat to 

sone, her husbande an honest citezen, yonge and goodly 

10 and of good substance. Proper she was and faire ; nothing 
in her body that you wold haue changed, but if you would 
haue wished her somewhat higher. Thus say thei that knew 
her in her youthe. Albeit some that now se her (for yet she 
liueth) deme her neuer to haue ben wel visaged. Whose 

iSjugement semetb me somwhat like as though men should 
gesse the bewty of one longe before departed, by her scalpe 
taken out of the charnel house ; for now is she old, !ene, 
withered, and dried vp, nothing left but ryuilde skin and 
hard bone. And yet being euen such, whoso wel aduise 

zo her visage, might gesse and deuise which partes how 
filled wold make it a faire face. Yet dehted not men so 
much in her bewty, as in her plesant behauiour. For a 
proper wit had she, and could both rede wel and write, 
mery in company, redy and quick of aunswer, neither mute 

35 nor ful of bable, sometime taunting without displesure 
and not without disport. In whom the king therfore 
toke speciall pleasure. Whose fauour, to sai the trouth, 
(for sinne it wer to belie the deuil) she neuer abused 
to any mans hurt, but to many a mans comfort and relief: 

30 where the king toke displeasure she would mitigate and 
appease his mind : where men were out of fauour, she wold 
bring them in his grace. For many that had highly offended, 
^ee obtained pardon. Of great forfetures she gate i 


remission. And finally in many weighty stttes, she stode 
many men in gret stede, cither for none, or very smal re- 
waides, and those rather gay then rich ; either for that she 
was content with the dede selfe well done, or for that she 
detited to be suid vnto, and to show what she was able to 
do wyth the king, or for that wanton women and welthy be 
not alway couetouse. I doubt not some shal think this 
woman to sleight a thing to be written of and set amonge 
the remembraunces of great matters ; which thei shal spe- 
cially think, that happely slial esterae her only by that thei 
now see her. But me semeth the chaunce so much the 
more worthy to be reraembred, in how miich she is now in 
the more beggcrly condicion, vnfrended and wome out of 
acquaintance, after good substance, after as gret fauour with 
the prince, after as gret sute and seking to with al those that i] 
those days had busynes to spcde, as many other men were 
in their times, which be now famouse, only by the infamy of 
their il dedes. Her doinges were not much lesse, albeit thei 
be much lesse reme[m]bred, because thei were not so euil 
For men vse if they haue an euil tume, to write it in marble : 
and whoso doth vs a good tourne, we write it in duste, 
which is not worst proued by her: for at this daye shee 
beggeth of many at this daye lining, that at this day had 
begged if she had not bene. 

Now was it so deuised by the protectour and his i| 
counsel, that the self day in which the lord Chamberlen 
was behedded in the tower of London, and 
about the selfsame hower, was there, not with- rji 
out his assent, behedJed at Poontfraite, the " 
fore-remembred lordes and knightes that were taken from 39] 
the king at Nonhampton and Stony Stratford. Which 
thinge was done in the presence and by the order of syr 
Ratclii knight, whose seruice the protector spec: 


s6 • TiTE msTokrs OF 

Sur Riciurd ^I'y ^'ssd in the counsel and in thexecucion of 
R^ici.f, gyj-i, i-nyiej enterprises, as a man that had ben 

long secret wiih him, hauing experience of the world and 
a shrewde wit, short and rude in speche, rough and bous- 
5 tiouse of behauiour, bold in mischief, as far from pitie 
as from al fere of God. This knight bringing them out of 
the prison to the scafold, and shewing to the people about 
that thei were traitors, not suffring them to speke and 
declare their innocence, lest their wordes might haue in- 

lo dined men to pity them, and to hate the protectour and 
his part, caused them hastly without jugement, processe, 
or maner of order to be behedded, and without other 
earthly gilt, but only that thei were good men, to true to 
the king and to nigh to the quene. Now when the lord 

15 Chamberlen, and these other lordes and knightes were thus 
behedded and ridde out of the way : then thought the 
protectour, that while men mused what the mater ment, 
while the lordes of the realme wer about him out of their 
owiie strenghtis, while no man wist what to thinke nor 

30 whome to trust, ere euer they should haue space to dispute 
and disgest the mater and make parties, it wer best hastly 
to pursue his purpose, and put himself in possession of 
the crowne, ere men could haue time to deuise ani wais 
to resist. But now was al the study, by what raeane thys 

25 matter being of it self so heinouse, might be first broken to 
the people, in such wise that it might be wel taken. To 
this counsel they toke diuerse, such as they thought metely 
to be trusted, likely to be indused to the parte, and able 
to stand them in stede, either by power or policy. Among 

30 whom, they made of counsail Edmond Shaa 

ahaa,Maier knight, then Maier of London, which, vpon trust 
of his owne aduauncement, whereof he was ol a 
^^ proud hart highly desirouse, shold frame the cite to tla 



appetite. Of spiritual men thei toke such as had wit, and 
were in aucthoritie among the peple for oppinion of ther 
lerning, and had no scrupilouse consience. Among these 
had thei John Shaa clerke, brother to the Maier, 
and freer Penker, prouincial of the Augustine ! 

freers, both doctors of diuinite, both gret prechars, both of 
more learning then vertue, of more fame then 
lerning. For thei were before gretly estemed 
among the peple, but after that neuer. Of these two the 
tone had a sermon in praise of the protectour before the i( 
coronacion, the tother after, both so ful of tediouse flatery, 
that no mans eares could abide them. Penker in his ser- 
mon so lost his voice that he was faine to leaue of and come 
downe in the middes. Doctour Shaa by his sermon lost 
his honestie, and sone after his life, for very shame of the i : 
worlde, into which he durst neuer after come abrade. But 
the frere forced for no shame, and so it harmed him the 
lesse. Howbeit some dout and many thinken that Penker 
was not of counsel of the mater before the coranacion, 
but after the comen maner fell to flattery after, namely 2' 
sith his sermon was not incontinent vpon it, but at S. Mary 
hospytall at the Ester after. But certaine is it, that Doctour 
Shaa was of counsel in the beginning, so farre forth that 
they determined that he should first btcke the mater in 
a sermon at Poules Crosse, in whiche he shold, by the 2 
aucthorite of his preaching, encline the peple to the pro- 
teclours ghos[l]ly purpose. But now was al the labour and 
study in the deuise of some conuenient pretext, for which 
the peple should be content to depose tlie prince and 
accept the protector for kinge. In which, diuerse thinges l 
they deuised. But the chief thing and the weighty of al 
inuencion rested in this that they should allege 
r, either In king Edward himstlf, or in his children, 


or bolh. So that he should seroe dishabled to inherite 
the crowne by the duke of Yorke, and the prince by him. 
To lay bastardy in kynge Edward sowned openly to the 
rebuke of the protectours owne modier, which was mother 
5 to them both ; for in that point could be none other colour, 
but to pretend that his own mother was one aduouteresse 
which notwithstanding, to farther this purpose, he letted 
not; but natheles he would that point should be lesse.and 
more fauombly,handled, not euen fully plain and directly, 

lo but that the matter should be touched aslope craftely, as 
tliough men spared in that point to speke al the trouth 
for fere of his displeasure. But the other point concerning 
the bastardy that they deuised to surmise in king Edwards 
children, that wold he should be openly declared and 

i5.inforsed to the vttermost. The coloure and pretext wherof 
cannot be wel perceiued, but if we first rejiete you some 
thinges longe before done about king Edwardes mariage. 

After that king Edward the fourthe had deposed kinge 
Henry the sUt, and was in peasyble possession of the 

sorealme, determining himself to mary, as it was requisite 
bothe for himself and for the realme, he sent ouer in 
embassiate the Erie of Warwike with other noblemen in 
his company vnto Spaine, to intreate and conclude a 
mariage betwene king Edward and the kinges doughter of 

25 Spain. In which thing the Erie of Warwik founde the 
parties so toward and willing, that he spedely, according to 
his instruccions, without any difficulty, brought the matter 
lo ver>'e good conclusion. Now happed it that in the 
raeane season, there came to make a sute, by peticion to 

30 danieEiiEi- ^^ ^^'ng. damc Elizabeth Gray which was after 
bcih Gray, jjjg qygne, at that tyme a widow borne of noble 
blood, specyally by her mother, which was Duches of Bed- 
L,Wodefeld her father,— 


this dame Elizabeth her self, being in seniice with quene 
Margaret, wife vnto king Henry the VI., was maried vnto one 
— Gray a squier whom king Henry made knight vpon the 
field that he had on — at — against king Edward. And litle 
while enjoyed he that knighthod, for he was at that same field 
slaine. After which done, and the Erie of Wanvik being 
in his embassiate about thafore remembred manage, this 
pore Lady made humble sute vnto the king, that she might 
be restored vnto such smat landes as her late husband 
had giucn her in jointure. Whom when the king beheld, ro 
and hard her speke, as she was both faire, of a good fauor, 
moderate of stature, wel made and very wise : he not only 
pitied her, but also waxed ennamored on her. And thus 
taking counsaile of his desyre determined in al possible 
hast (o mary her. And after he was thus appointed, and 
hadde betwene them twain ensured her; then asked he 
counsel of his other frendes, and that in suche maner, as 
the! might ethe perceiue it boted not greatly to say nay. 
Notwithstanding the Duches of York his mother .j.,^,. y,^^^ 
was so sore moued therewith, that she diswaded "">"■"• 
themariageasmuchosshe possible might,alleging that it was 
his honor, profile, and surety also, to mary in a noble progeny 
out of his realm, whereupon depended gret strength to his 
estate by the affinytie and great possibilitie of encrease of 
his possessions. And that he could not well otherwise do, 
standing that the Earle of Wanvik had so far moued already. 
Whiche wer not hkely to take it well, if al his viage were 
in suche wise frustrate, and his appointmentes deluded. 
And she said also that it was not princely to mary hys owne 
subject, no gret occasion leading ther\-nto, no possessions 3' 
or other commodityes depending thervpon, but onely as 
il were a rich man that would mary his mayde, onely for a 
wanton dotage vppon her parson. In which mariage 


60 Tsa gmvfii'fK «>■ 

nianye moe commend the maidens fortune then the mais- 
tcrs wisdom. And yet therin she said was more honesty, 
then honor in this niariage. Forasmuch as there is betwene 
no merchant and his own maid so gret difference, as 
5 hetwene the king and this widowe. In whose parson albeit 
ther was nothing to be mishked, yet was there, she saide, 
nothing so excellent, but that it might be founden in diners 
other, that wer more metely {quod she) for your estate, 
and maydens also, wher as the only widowhed of Elizabeth 

lo Gray, though she wer in al other thinges conuenient for 
you, shold yet suffice, as me semeth, to refrain you from her 
mariage, sith it is an vnfitting thing, and a vcri blemish, 
and highe disparagement, to the sacre magesty of a prince, 
that ought as nigh to approche priesthode in clenes as he 

15 doth in dignitie, to be defouled with bigamy in his first 

The king when his mother had said, made her answer 

part in ernest,part in play merely, as he that wiste himself out 

of her rule. And albeit he would gladly that she 

20 answer labia shold take it wel, yet, was at a pointe in his owne 

m)'nde, toke she it wel or otherwise. Howbeit 

somwhat to satisfy her he saide, that albeit mariage being a 

spiritual thing, ought rather to be made for the respecte of 

God where his grace encbneth the parties to lone together, as 

25 he trusted it was in his, then for the regard of any temporal 
aduauntage ; yet natheles him seraed that this mariage euen 
worldly considred was not vnprofitable. For he reckentd 
tlie amitye of no earthly nacion so necessari for him, as 
the frendship of his own. Which he thought likely to beare 

30 him so muche the more herty fauor in that he disdayned 
not to marye with one of his own land. And yet yf oute- 
ward aliance wer thought so requisite, he wold find the 
> to enter therinto, muct 

tr^G nycffARns the thirde. 

wlier al ihe parties could be contented, than to mary 
himseH whom hee shoulde happelye neuer loue, and for 
the possibility of tnore possessions lese the fruit and plea 
sure of this that he had alredy. For smal pleasure taketh 
a man of al that euer he hath beside, yf he bee ' 
against his appetite. And I dout not, quod he, but there 
be, as ye saye, other that be in euery point comparable 
with her. And therfore I let not them that like them to 
wedde them. No more is it reason that it raislike any 
man, that I mary where it liketh me. And I am sure that 13 I 
my cosein of Warwik neither loueth me so litle, to grudge 
at that I loue, nor is so vnresonable to loke that I shold, 
in choise of a wife, rather be ruled by hys eye, then by 
mine own ; as though I wer a ward that wer bound to mary 
by thapointment of a gardain. I wold not be a kyng with i 
that condicion, to forbere mine own lyberty in choise of 
my own mariage. As for possibilitie of more inheritaunce 
by new affinity in estraunge landes, [it] is ofle the occasion 
of more trouble then profile. And we haue alredy title, by 
that meanes, to so much as sufRseth to get and kepe wel a 
in one mans dales. And as for the bigamy, let the bishop 
hardely lay it in my wai, when I come to take orders. 
I vnderstand it is forbidden a prieste, but I neaerwiste it 
yet that it was forbidden a prince. 

The Duchesse with these wordes nothyng appeased, and ajj 
seing the king so set thereon that she coulde not pull him 
backe, so hyghelye she djsdained it, that vnder pretext of her 
duetye to Godwarde, shee deuised to disturbe this mariage, 
and rather to help that he shold mary one dame . 
Elizabeth Lucy, whom the king had also not long 
before gotten with child. Wherefore the kinges mother ob- 
jected openly against his mariage, as it were in discharge of 

.conscience, that the kinge was sure to dame Elisabeth 

«!. TBS BmrORm of 

Lucy and lier husband before God. By reson of which 
wordes, such obstacle was made in the mater, tliat either the 
Bishoppes durst not, or the king would not, precede to the 
solempnisacion of this weding, til these sarae wer clerely 
5 pu^ed, and the trouth wel and openly testified. Whenipon 
dame Elysabeth Lucy was sent for. And albeit that she 
was by the kinges mother and many other put in good 
comfort, to affirme that she was ensured vnto the king : 
yet when she was solempnely swome to say the trouth, she 
lo confessed that they were neuer ensured, Howbeit she 
sayed his grace spake so louing wordes vnto her, that she 
verely hopid he wold haue maried her. This examinaclon 
solempnly taken, when it was clerely perceiued that there 
was none impediment : the king, with gret feast and honor- 
's The KinEcs ^1^'^ solempnite, maried dame Elisabeth Gral 
n.!uCas5. and iier crowned queue that was hys enemies 

wife, and many time had praied full hartly for his losse. lo 
which God loued her better, then to graunt her her bone. 
But when the Erie of Warwick vnderstode of this 
ao mariage, he tooke it so highly that his embasiate was 
deluded, that for very angre and disdaine, he at his retoume 
assembled a gret puisaunce against the king, and came 
so fast vppon him or he could be able to resist, that he 
The king ^^^ faine to voide the realme and fle into Hol- 

jj fledde. laund for succour. Wher he reraaj-ned for the 

space of iL yeres, leuing hys new wife in Westminster in 
The prince Sanctuary, wher she was deliuered of Edward 
'™°=- the prince, of whom we before haue spoken. 

In which mene time the Erie of Warwik toke out of prison 
i° King Henry ^^^ ^^^ ^P againe king Henry the vi. which 
ihevi. Kinp. ^^.^ before by king Edward deposed and that 
much what by the power of the Erie of Warwike ; which 
; a wise man and a couragiouse wariour, and of si 



63 I 

strength, what for his landes. his alhaunce and or ih 
fauer with al the people, that he made kinges ^^" 
and put down kinges almost at his pleasure, and not im- 
possible to haue attained it himsclfe, if he had not rekened 
it a greater thing to make a king then to be a 
nothing lastelh alway, for in conclusion king Edwarde re- 
turned, and with much lesse number then he had, at Barnet 
on thestre daye felde, slewe the Erie of Waxwik . 
with many other great estates of that partie, and 
so stably attained the crowne againe, that he peassyblyisl 
enjoyed it vntil his dieng day : and in such plight left it, 
that it could not be lost, but by the discorde of his verye 
frendes, or falshed of his fained frendes. 

I haue rehersed this busines about this manage som- 
what the more at lenght, because it might therby the better 15I 
ttppere \-pon how slipper a grounde the protector builded 
his colour, by which he pretended king Edwardes children 
to be hastardes. But that imiencion simple as it was, it 
liked them lo whom it suffised to haue somwhat to s 
while they wer sure to be compelled to no larger proofe a 
then themselfe list to make. Now then as I began to shew 
you, it was by the protectour and his counsaile concluded, 
that this doclour Sha should, in a sermon at 
Poules Crosse, sygnifie to the people, that nei- £ 
thcr king Edward himself, nor the Duke of """" aj J 

Clarence, were lawfully begotten, nor were not the very 
children of the duke of Vorke ; but gotten vnlawfuUy by 
other parsons by thaduoutry of the duches their mother. 
And that also dame Elisabeth Lucy was verely the wife of 
king Edward, and so the prince and all his children bas- 3 
tardes that were gotten vpon the queue. According to this 
deuise, doctour Shaa the Sonday after at Poules Crosse ii 
audience (as alway assembled gret numbre I 

preching) he toke for liis tyine spuria vihiUtniina non agent 
radices alias. That is to say, bastard slippes sha! neuer take 
depe roote, Thenipon when he had shewed the great grace 
that God giueth and secretly infowndeth in right generacion 

S after the lawes of matrimony, then declared he that comenly 
those children lacked that grace, and for the punishment of 
their parentes were for the more parte vnhappie, which were 
gotten in baste and speciallye in aduowtrie. Of which, though 
some, by the ignoraunce of the world and the trouth hid 

o fro knowlege, enherited for the season other mennes landes, 
yet God ahvay so prouideth, that it continueth not in their 
blood long, but the trouth eomming to light, the rightful 
inheritors be restored, and the bastard slip pulled vp, ere 
it can be roted depe. And when he had laid for the proofe 

5 and confirmacion of this sentence, certain easamples taken 
out of the olde testament and other auncient histories, 
then began he to descend into the praise of the lord 
Richarde late duke of York, calling him father to the lofd 
protectour, and declared the title of hys heires vnto the 

a crowne, to whom it was after the death of King Henry the 
sixte entailed by authoritye of parliamente. Then shewed 
he that his very right heire of his body lawfully begoiten, 
was onely the lord protector. For he declared then that 
king Edward was neuer lawfully marled vnto the queae, 

5 but was before God husband vnto dame Elizabeth Lucye, 
and so his children bastardes. And besides that, neither 
king Edward himself, nor the duke of Clarence atni 
those that wer secret in the houshold, wer reckened 
surely for the children of the noble Duke, as those that 

o their fauours more resembled other knowen men then 
From whose vertuous condicions he said also that kynge 
Edward was far of. But the lord protectour he said, that 
-.XfiS'-.IloWe juince, the special pateme of 


!is well in all princely beliaueor as in the liniamentes and 
(auor of his visage, represented the verye face of the noble 
duke his father. This is, fjuod he, the fathers owne figure, 
this is his own countenance, the very prent of his visage, 
the sure vndoubted image, the playne expresse likenes of Jj 
that noble Duke. 

Nowe was It before deuised, that in the speaking of these 
wordea, the protector should haue comen in among the peo- 
ple to the sermonwarde, to thend that those words meting 
with his presence, might haue been taken among theio.l 
hearers, as thoughe the Hojye Ghost liad put them in the 
preachers mouth, and should haue moued tlie people euen 
flier to crie, king Richard, king Richard, that it might haue 
bene after said, that he was specially chosen by God and in 
maner by miracle. But this deuise quailed either by the iJb 
protectors negligence, or the preachers ouermuche diligence. 
For while the protector found by the way tarying lest he 
should preuent those woordes, and the doctor fearing that 
he should com ere his sermon could come to those wordes 
hasted his matter therto ; he was com to them and past 31 
Ihem, and entred into other matters ere the protector came. 
Whom when he beheld coming, he sodainly iefte the matter, 
with which he was in hand, and without ani deducdon ther- 
unto, out of al order, and oute of al frame, began to repete 
those wordes again ; this is that verye noble prince, the a^' | 
special patrone of knightly prowes, which as well in al 
princelye behaueor, as in the lineamentes and fauor of his 
visage, representeth the very face of the noble duke of York 
his father. This is the fathers own figure, this his own 
countenance, the very printe of his visage, the sure vr- 3tL 
doubted ymage, the plain expresse lykenes of the noble 
duke, whose remembrance can neuer dye while he liueth, 

Ble these wordes wer in speaking, the protector iS& 


^^^^ into the place where the doctors comooly stand ' 

r in the vpper story, where he stode to hearken the 

' sermon. But the people wer so farre fro crying king Richard, i 

5 that thei stode as thei had bene turned into stones, for wonder 
of this shaniefull sermon. After whiche once ended, the 
preacher gate him home and neuer afEer durst looke out for 
shame, but kepe him out of sight lyke an owle. And when 
he once asked one that had bene his old frend, what the 
lo people talked of him, al wer it that his own conscience wel 
shewed him that thei talked no good, yet when the toiher 
answered him that there was in euery mans mouth spoken 
of him much shame, it so strake hira to the heart, that 
within fewe daies after he withered and consumed away. 
15 Then on the Tewesday folowing this sermon, there came 
vnto the geld hall in London the duke of Buckingham, ac- 
companied with diners lordes and knightes, mo then hap- 
pely koewe the message that thei brought And there in 
ihe east ende of the hall where tlie maire kepeth the husi- 
20 inges, the maire and al the aldermen being assembled about 
him, all the commons of the citie gathered before them, 
after silence commannded vpon greate pain in the protec- 
tors name, the Duke stode yp, and (as he was neither vn- 
learned, and of nature marueilouslye well spoken) hee saide 
25 vnto the people with a clere and a loude voice in this 

The duke of Frendes, for the zeale and heartye fauonr 

J pracion. that we beare you, we be comen to breake vntO 

I you, of a matter ryghte great and weighty, and no lesse 

30 weighlye, then pleasing to God and profitable to al the 

realm ; nor to no part of the realm more profitable, then to 

jou Ihe citezens of this noble citie. For why, that thyiig 

^^^Bcthat we wDte well ye haue long time lacked and sore ionge^H 

for, that ye woulde haue geuen great good for, that ye woulde 
haue gone farre to felche, that thjiige wee bee comme hythi 
to bringe you, withoute youre labour, payne, coste, aduenture 
orjeopardie. Wliat thynge is that? certes the suretye of 
your owne bodyes, the quiete of youre wiues ard youre 
doughters, the safegarde of youre goodes ; of all whiche 
thynges in tymes passed ye stoode euermote in doubte. 
For who was there of you all, that woulde recken hym se!fe 
lorde of his own good, among so many grennes and 
trappes as was set therfore, among so much pilh'ng and 
polling, among so many taxes and tallages, of whiche there 
was neuer ende, and often time no nede ; or if any wer, it 
rather grew of riote and vnresonable wast, then any neces- 
sarye or honorable charge? So that there was dayly pilled 
fro good men and honest, gret substaunce of goodes to be 
lashed oute among vnthriftes so farforlh that fiftenes suflised 
not) nor ani vsual names of knowen taxes ; but vnder an 
easy name of beneuolence and good will, the commissioners 
so much of eueiy man toke, as noman would with his good 
wil haue giuen. As though the name of beneuolence, had 2< 
signified that euery man shold pay, not what himself of his 
good wil list to graunt, but what the king of his good will 
list to take. Which neuer asked litle, but euery thing was 
hawsed aboue the mesure ; amercementes turned into fines, 
fines into raunsomes, smal trespas to misprision, misprision jj 
into treson. Wherof I thinke no man loketh that we should 
remembre you of examples by name, as though 
Burdet were forgotten, that was, for a worde 
spoken in hast, cruelly behedded, by the misconstruing 
the lawes of thys realme for the princes plesure : with 
les honour to Markam then chief Justyce, that 
l^tus office rather then he would assent to 

" to the dishonesty of those, that 



on 25 


lat ^H 


eitlier for fere or flatterie gaue that judgement. WTiat, Coke 

your own worshipful neibour, aldermari and 

mayer of this noble citie, who Js of you eyther 

so negligent that he knoweth not, or so forgecfull that 

5 he remcmbreth not, or so harde hearted that he pitielii 

not, that worshipful mans losse ? What speke we of losse? 

Ills vtter spoils and vndeseriied distmccyon, only for that 

it happed those to fauour him, whome the prince fauored 

not. We nede not, I suppose, to reherse of these any 

10 mo by name, sith ther be, I doubte not, many here present, 
that either in themself or their nighe frendes, haue knowen 
as well their goodes as their parsons greatly endaungered, 
either by fained quarels, or smal matters agreuid with 
heinouse names. And also there was no crime so great, 

15 of whiche there could lack a pretext. For sithe the lang 
preuenting the time of his enheritaunce attained the 
crowne by batayl ; it suffised in a riche man for a pretext 
of treson, to haue ben of kinred or alliaunce,nere famiharite 
or leger aquaintaunce, with any of those thai were at any 

2o time the kinges enemies, which was at one time and other, 

more then halfe the realme. Thus wer nether your goods 

in surety and yet they brought your bodies in jubardi, besyde 

the comen aduenture of open warre, which albeit 

that it is euer the wil and occasion of mucli 

25 mischief, yet is it neuer so mischeuouse, as where any 
peple fal at distaunce among themself, nor in none erthlj' 
nacion so dedely and so pestilent, as when it happeneth 
among vs, and among vs neuer so long continued dissen- 
sion, nor so many battailes in the season, nor so cruel and 

30 so deadly foughten, as was in that kinges daies that dead is, 
God forgiue it his soule. In whose time and by whose 
occasion, what about the getting of the garland, keping it, 
lesing and winning againe, it hath cost more Englishe blg^^ 

JtYNG RYcrmims tbb thirde, 69 

then hath twise the winning of Fraunce. In which inward 
wane among our self, hatli ben so great effucion 
of ihe auncient noble blood of ihis realme, 
that scarcely the half remaineCh, to the gret infebling of 
this noble land, beside many a good town ransakid and 
spoiled, by them that haue ben going to the field or 
cumming from thence. And peace long after not much 
surer then war. So that no time was Iher in which rich men 
for their mony, and gret men for their landes, or some other 
for some fere or some displesure were out of peryl. For lO' 
whome trusted he that mistrusted his own brother? Whom 
spared he that killed his own brother? or who could par- 
fiiely loue him, if hys owne brother could not ? what maner 
of folke he most fauoured, we shall for hys honour spare 
to speke of, howbeit thys wote you wel al, that whoso was 15 
beste, bare alway lest rule, and more sute was in his dayes 
vnto Shores wife, then to al the lordes in England, except 
vnlo those that made her their proctoure; which simple 
woman was wel named and honest, tyll the kyng byrefc 
her from her husband, a right honest substauncial yong zq., 
man among you. And all were it that with this and other 
importable dealing, the realrae was in euery part annoyd ; 
yet specially ye here the citezens of this noble citie, as 
well for that among you is most plenty of all such thinges 
as minister matter to such injuries, as for that you were 25 
nereste at hande, sith that nere here about was comonly his 
most abyding. And yet bee ye the people whom he had 
as singuler cause wel and kyndly to entreate, 
as any part of his realme, not onely for that the i-iMKei (peciai 
prince by this noble citye, as his special cham- 
ber and the speciall wel renoumed citye of his realme, mucb 
honorable fame receiueth among all other nacions : but also 
!t ye, not without your great coste and sundry 



76 TStE nrsToftiE.dr 

and jeopardies in all his warres, bare eueryoiir specyall Taui 
to his parte. Whiche youre kynde myndes borne to the house 
of York, sith he hath nothing worthely acquited, ther is of 
that house that now by Gods grace better shal, which thing 
5 to shewe you is the whole some and effect of this our pre- 
sente errande. It shall not, I wotewell, nede that I rehearse 
you agayn that ye haue alreadye harde, of him that can 
better tell it, and of whom I am sure ye wil better beleue 
it. And reason is that it so be. I am rot so proiide to 

lolooke therfore, that ye shoulde recken my wordes of as 
great authoritie as the preachers of the worda of God, 
namelye a manne so cunninge and so wise that no manne 
better woteth what he should say, and thereto so good and 
vertuous that he would not say the thyng whiche he wist he 

15 shoulde not say, in the pulpet namely, into which none 
honest man commeth to He, which honorable preacher ye 
wel remeraber substancially declared vnto you at Ponies 
crosse on Sunday last passed, the righte and title that the 
most excellent prince Richard, duke of Gloucester, now pro- 

20 tectour of this realme, hath vnto the crown and kingdom of 
tlie same. For as the worshipful man groundly made op( 
vnto you, the children of king Edward the fourth v 
lawfully begotten, forasmuch as the king (lining his very 
dame Elizabeth Lucy) was neuer lawfully married vnto the 

25 Quene their mother, whose bloode, sauing that he set his 
volupleous pleasure before his honor, was full vnmelely to 
bee matched with his, and the mengling of whose bloodes 
together, hath bene the effusion of great parte of the noble 
bloode of this realme. Wherby it raaye wel seme that 

30 niariage not well made, of which ther is so much mischief 
growen. For lack of which lawfull accoupling, and also of 
other thinges, which the said worshipful doctor rather signi- 
fied then fully explaned, and which thynges shal not ^ 

spoken for me, as -the thing wherin euery man forbereth to 
say that he knoweth, in auoidmge dyspleasiire of my noble 
lord protector, bearin^e as nature requireth a filial reuerence 
to the duches his mother; tor these causes, I say, before 
remembred, that is to wit, for lack of other issue lawfully ; 
comming of the late noble prince Richard duke of York, lo 
whose roial bloode the crown of England and of Fraunce 
is by the high authoritie of parliament entailed, the right 
and title of the same is, by the just course of enlieritance 
accordinge to the comon law of this lande, deuolute and k 
comen vnto the most excellent prince the lord protector as 
10 the very lawfully begotten sonne of the fore remembred 
noble duke of Yorke. Which thing well considred, and 
the greate knightly prowes pondred, with manyfolde vertues 
which in his noble parson singularly abound, the nobles and ii 
commons also of this realm, and specially of the north 
partes, not willing any bastard blood to haue the rule of the 
land, nor the abusions before in the same vscd any longer 
to continue, haue condiscended and fuUye determined to 
make humble peticion vnto the most pulsant prince, the at 
lord protector, that it mayc like his grace, at our humble 
request, to take vpon him the guiding and gouernance of 
this realm, to the weith and enctease of the same, according 
to his very right and just title. Which thing I wote it wel 
he wil be loth to take vpon him, as he whose wisdom well ag 
perceiueth the labor and study both of minde and of bodye 
that shal come therewith, to whom so euer so wel occupy 
the rourae, as I dare say he wil if he take it Which roume 
I warne you well is no chJldes office. And that the greate 
wise manne well perceiued, when hee sayde : ^c/* re^no 
iiiius roe pucr est. Woe is that Realme, that halhe a chylde 
to theyre Kynge. Wherefore soo muche the more cause 
Lwe to thank God, that this noble parsonage which is so 



ryghteousely mtitled thereunto, is of so sadde age, and 
therto of so great wisedome joined with so great expe- 
rience ; whiche albeit he wil be lothe, as I haue said, to tak; 
it vpon him ; yet shall he to oure peticion in that behalf the 
5 more graciously encline if ye, the worsshipfull citezens of 
this the chiefe citie of this realme, joyne wyth vs the noblts 
in our said request. Which for your owne weale we double 
not but ye will, and natheles I hartelye praye yon so to do*, 
wherby you shall doe gret profite to all this realme besioe 

lo in chosing them so good a king, and vnto your selfe speciall 
commodite, to whome hys majesty shall euer after beare so 
muche the more tender fauour, in howe much he shall per- 
ceiue you the more prone and beueuolently minded toward 
his elecdon. Wherin, dere frendes, what mind you haue, 

15 wee require you plainely to shew vs. 

When the duke had saied, and looked that the people 
whome he hoped that the mayer had framed before, shoulde, 
after this proposicion made, haue cried, king Richarde, 
king Richard ; all was husht and mute, and not one 

10 word aunswered therunto. Wherewith the duke was 
meruailously abashed, and taking the maier nerer to him, 
with other that were about him priuey to that matter, saied 
vnto them sofllye, What meaneth this, that this peple be 
so stil? Sir, quod the mayer, parcase they perceyue yoB 

25 not well, That shal we mende {quod he) if that 
helpe. And by and by somewhat louder, he rehei 
them the same matter againe in other order and other 
wordes, so wel and ornately, and natheles so euidently 
and plaine, with voice gesture and countenance so cumly 

30 and so conuenient, that euery man much raeruailed that 
herd him, and thought that they neuer had in their liues 
heard so euill a tale so well tolde. But were it for wonder or 
feare, or that eche looke[d] that other shoulde speake fyi 


:ake fyrat^^ 


not one woorde was there aiinswered of all the people that 
stode before, but al was as styl as the midnight, not so 
much as rowning among them, by whych they myght seme 
to comen what was best to doe. When the mayer saw thys 
he %pyth other pertiners of that counsayle, drew aboute the 
dwfce and sayed that the people had not ben accustomed 
there to be spoken vnto but by the recorder, whiche is the 
mouth of the citie, and happely to him they Finwiiiiam 
will aunswere. With that the recorder, called "™'^"- 
Fitz Wyllyam, a sadde man and an honest, whiche was 10 
so new come into that office that he neuer had spoken 
to the peple before, and loth was with that matter to 
beginne, notwithstanding' thereunto comuiaunded by the 
mayer, made rehetsall to the comcns of that the duke had 
twise rehersed them himselfe. But the recorder so tem- 
pered his tale, that he shewed euery thing as the dukes 
wordes and no part his owne. But all thys nothing no 
chaunge made in the people which, alway after one, stode 
as they had ben men amased, wherupon the duke rowned 
vnto the mayer and sayd : Thys is a maruelouse obstinate : 
silence. And therewith he turned vnto the peple againe 
with these wordes : Dere frendes, we cume to moue 
you to that thing which peraduenture we not so greately 
neded, but that the lordes of thys realme and the comens 
of other parlies might haue sutfised, sauing that we such 
loue here you, and so much sette by you, that we woulde 
not gladly doe withoute you that thing in which to bee 
patteners is your weale and honour which, as it semeth, 
eyther you se not or way not. Wherfore we require you 
giue vs aunswer one or other, whither you be mynded as all 
the nobles of the realme be, to haue this noble pr}-nce now 
prolectour to be your kyng or not. At these wordes the 
iple began to whisper among themselfe secretely, that the 



voyce was neyther loiide nor distincke, but as it were the 
sounde of a swarme of bees, tyl at the last in the nether 
ende of the hal, a bushement of the dukes seruantes, and 
Nashefeldes and other longing to the protectour, with some 
g prentises and laddes that thrust into the hal amonge the 
prese, began sodainelye at mennes backes to crye owte as 
lowde as their throtes would gyue, king Richarde, kinge 
Rycharde, and threwe vp their cappes in token of joye. 
And they that stode before, cast back theyr heddes mer- 

louailing thereof, but nothing they sayd. And when the 
duke and the maier saw thys maner, they wysely turned it 
to theyr purpose. And said it was a goodly cry and a joy- 
full to here, euery man with one voice, no manne sayeng 
nay. Wherfore frendes, ijuod the duke, sins that we par- 

15 ceiue it is al your hole mindes to haue this noble man for 
your king, whereof we shall make his grace so effectuall 
reporte, that we doubte not but it shall redounde vnto your 
great weal and conimoditye ; we require ye that ye to 
morow go with vs and wee with you vnto his noble grace, 

20 to make our humble request vnto him in maner before 
remembred. And tlierewith the lordes came downe, and 
the company dissolued and departed, the more part al sad, 
som with glad setnblaunce that wer not very mery, and 
some of those that came thyther with the duke, not able to 

25 dissemble theyr sorow, were faine at his backe to tume 
their face to the wall, while the doloure of their heart braste 
oute at theyr eyen. Then on the morowe after, the mayre 
with all the aldermen and chiefe comeners of the citie in 
The mayer their beste maner apparailed, assembling ihera- 

30 mJJSIi " ^^'^ together resorted vnto Baynardes castell 
'=""='■ where the protector lay. To which place 

repaired also according to theyr appointmente the duke 
of Buckingham, with dyuers noble roenne with 

beside manye Icnighles and other gentlemen. And there- 
upon the duke sent worde vnto the lord protectour, 
of the being there of a great and honourable coumpanye, 
> moue a great matter vnto his grace. Whereupon the 
protectour made difficultie to come oute vnto them, but 
if he first knewe some part of theyr errande, as though he 
doubted and partelye dystrusted the commyng of suche 
noumber vnto him so sodainlye, withoule any wamyng or 
knowledge, whyther they came for good or harme. Then 
the Duke when he had shewed this vnto the maire and other, 
that they mighte thereby see howe lytle the protectour 
loked for this matter, thei sent \-nto him by the messenger 
suche louyng message agaiae, and therewith so humblye 
besought hym to vouchesafe that thei might resort to hys 
presence, to purpose their intent, of which they would vnto 15 
none other parson any part disclose, that at the laste hee 
came foorth of his chamber, and get not down vnto them, 
but stode abone in a galar>-e ouer them, where they mighte 
e hym and speake to him, as though he woulde not yet 
ime to nere them tyll he wist what they menle. And so 
ihereuppon the Duke of Buckingham fyrste made humble 
peticion vnto him, on the behajfe of them all, that his 
grace woulde pardon them and lycence them to purpose 
vnto hys grace the intent of their commyng withoute his 
displeasure, withoute whiche pardon obtayned, they durst ag 
not be bold to moue him of that matter. In whiche albeit 
thei ment as muche honor to hys grace as wealthe to al (he 
realm beside, yet were they not sure howe hys grace woulde I 
take it, whom they would in no wyse offende. Then the ' 
protector as hee was very gentle of hymselfe, and also 30 
longed sore to wit what they mente, gaue hym leaue to pur- 
pose what hym lyked, verely tmstyng for the good minde 
It he bare them al, none of them ani thing would intendc » 



vnto hym warde, where with he ought to be greued. When ' 
the duke had this leaue and pardon to speake, then waxed 
he bolde to shewe hym theyr intent and purpose, with all 
the causes mouing them thereunto as ye before haue harde, 
S and finally to beseche hys grace, that it woid lyke him of 
his accustomed goodnes and zeale vnto the realm, now with 
hLs eye of pitie, to beholde the long continued distres and 
decay of the same and to sette his gracious handes to the 
redresse and amendement therof, by taking vppon him the 

lo crowne and gouemaunce of this realme, according to his 
right and tylle lawfully descended vnto hym, and to the 
laude of God, profyte of the land, and vnto his grace so 
muche the more honour and lesse paine, In that that neiier 
prince raigned vpon any people, that were so glad to Hue 

15 vnder hys obeysaunce as the people of this realme vaderv 

his. ^ 

When the protector had hard the proposicion, mH 
loked very strangely iherat, and answered ; That all were it 
that he partli knew the thinges by them alledged to be true; 

23 yet such entier louc he bare vnto king Edward and his 
children, that so muche more regarded hys honour in other 
realmes about, then the crowne of any one, of which he was 
neuer desyrous, lliat lie could not fynde in his hearte in this 
poynte to enclyne to theyr desyre. For in all other nacyons 

2^ where the trueth wer not wel knowen, it shold paraduenture 
be thought, that it were his owne ambicious minde and 
deuise, to depose the prince and take himself the crown. 
With which infami he wold not haue his honoure stayned 
for anye crowne. In which he had euer parceyiied muche 

30 more labour and payn, then pleasure to hym that so woulde 
so vse it, as he that woulde not were not worthy to haue i(. 
Notwithstanding he not only pardoned them the mocion 
that they made him, but also thanked them for the loue and 

^ 77^ 

beaity fauoure they bare him, prayinge them for his sake to 
gcue and beare tlie same to the prj'nce, vnder whom he was 
and would be content to lyue, and with his labour and 
counsel as farre as shovild like the kyng to vse him, he woold 
doe his vttermost deuor to set the realm in good state. 
Whiche was alreadye in this litle while of his protectorship 
(the prayse geuen to God} wel begon, in that the malice of 
Buch as wer before occasion of the contrary, and of new in- 
tended to bee, were nowe partelye by good policye, partly 
more by Goddes special prouidence then mans prouision i 
repressed. Vpon this answer geuen, the Duke by the pro- 
tecicnirs lycence, a lytle roiined, as well with other noble 
men about him as with the mayre and recorder of London. 
And after that vpon lyke pardone desyred and obtayned, he 
shewed aloude vnto the protectour that for a fyna! conclu- i 
sion, that the realm was appointed king Edwardes lyne 
shoulde not any longer reigne vpon them, both for that thei 
had so farre gone, that it was now no surety to rctreate, as 
for that they tliought it for the weale vniuetsal to take that 
wai although they had not yet begonne it. Wherfore yf it ai 
would lyke hys grace to take the crowne vpon him, they 
woulde humblye beseche hym thereunto. If he woulde 
geue them a resolute aunswere to the contrarye, whyche 
they woulde bee lothe to heare, than muste they needes 
selte and sliold not faile to fynd some other noble manne 
that woulde. These wordes rauche moued the protectoure, 
whiche els, as euery manne may witte, would neuer of j 
likelyhoode haue inclyned therunto. But when he saw ther 1 
was none other way, but that eyther he must take it or els I 
he and his liothe goe fro it, he saide vnto the lordes and 36 
commons : Sith we parceiue wel that al the realm is so set, 
whereof we be very sorye that they wil not suffer in any 
ting Edwardes line to goueme them, whom no manne 



earthly can gouerne again their willes, and we wel also p 
ceue, that no manne is there, to whom the crowne can by ' 
so just tytle appertayn as to out self, as verye ryghte heyre 
lawfullye begotten of the bodye of oure moste deere father 
5 Rycharde late Duke of Yorke, to whiche tytle is nowe 
joyned your elleccion, the nobles and comons of this realm, 
whiche wee of all titles possible take for most effectual; we 
be content and agre fauourably to incline to your peticion 
Theprntector ^nd request, and accordyng to the same, here 

JO [,^'",0'^'"° we take vppon vs the royall estate, preeminence 
^'i"^'^- and kyngdoine of the twoo noble realmes, 

England and Fraunce, the tone fro this day forward by vs 
and our heires to rule, gouerne and defend, the tother by 
Goddes grace and youre good helpe to geat again and sub- 

15 dewe, and establish for euer in due obedyence vnlo this 
realme of Engknde, thaduancemeiit wherof we neuer aske 
of God longer to lyut then we entende to procure. With 
this there was a great shout, crying, kyng Richard, king 
Rychard. And then the lordes went vp to the kyng (for 

30 so was he from that time called) and the people departed, 
talkyng dluersly of the matter euery man as his fantasye 
gaue hym. But muche they talked and marueiled of the 
maner of this dealing, that the matter was on bothe partes 
made so straunge, as though neither had euer communed 

35 with other thereof before, when that themself wel wisi 
there was no man so dul that heard them, but he per- 
ceiued well inough, that all the matter was made betwene 
them. Howbeit somine excused that agayne, and sayde all 
must be done in good order though. And menne must 

30 sommetime for the manner sake not bee a-knowen what 
they knowe. For at the consectacion of a bishop, euery 
man woteth well by the paying for his bulies, that he pur- 
poseth to be one, and thoughe he paye for nothing t 


And yet must he bee twise asked wliyther he wil be bishoj) 
or no, and he muste twyse say naye, and at the third tym 
lake it as compelled ther vnto by his owne wyll. And in 
a. stage play all the people know right wel, that he that 
playeth the sowdayne is percase a sowter. Yet if one 
should can so lyttle good, to shewe out of seasonne what 
acquaintance he hath with hiro, and calle him by his owne 
name whyle he standeth in his magcstie, one of his tor- 
mentors might hap to breake his head, and worthy for 
marring of the play. And so they said that these matters 1 
bee Kynges games, as it were stage playes, and for the more 
part plaied vpon scafoldes. In which pore men be but the 
lokers on. And thei that wise be, wil medle no farther. 
For they that sometyme step vp and playe with them, when 
ihey cannot play their partes, they disorder the play and do i, 
them self no good. 

* The nexte daye the protectoiire with a 
beiwtneihii great traine wente to Westmynster halle and 
aiatiie'wasngt there when he had placed himself in the court 
mailer Moro of the kinges bench, declared to the audience, 21 
wrimnbyhim that he wouldc take vpon him the crowne in 
StiaMtete'd that placc there, wher the king himself sitteUi 
My'wJiicii ho and niinistreth the law; because he considred 
•TOW in im. ^^^ .^ ^^ ^j^^ chiefest duety of a kyng to 
minister the lawes. Than with as pleasant an oracionzyj 
as he could, he went about to win vnto him the nobles, 
the marchantes, the artificers, and in conclusion al kinde 
of men, but specially the la^vyers of tliis realme. And 
fynally to thentent that no man shoulde hate hym for 
feare, and that his deceitful clemency mighte gt-at him 3 
the good wyll of the people, when he had declared the 
dyscomoditie of discordc, and the commodyties of con- 
and vnitie, he made an open pro 


hs did put oote of his minde all enymities, and that he 
there did openly pardon all offences committed against 
liim. And to the entente that he might shew a proofs 
thereof, he commaunded that one Fogge, whom he had 
S long deadly hated, shold he hrought than hefore him. 
Who being brought oute of the saintuary by (for thither 
bad he (led, for fere of hym) in the sight of the people, he 
tooke him by the hand, Whiche thyng the common people 
rejoysed at and praised, but wise men tooke it for a vanitye. 
lo In his returne homewarde, whom so euer he met he saluted. 
For a rainde that knoweth it self giltye, is in a manet 
dejected to a seruile flattery. 

When he hadde begonne his reygne the — daye of June, 

after this mockisiie eleccion, than was he crowned the 

15 — day of the same monetli- And that solemnitie was 

furnished for the most part with the selfe same prouision 

that was appointed for the coronacion of his nephew*. 

Now fell ther mischieues thick. And as the thinge euill 
gotten is neuer well kept, through all the time of his 
20 reygne, neuer ceased there cruel death and slaughter, tilt 
his owne destruccion ended it But as he finished his 
time with the besle death, and the most righteous, that is 
to wyt his own ; so began he with tJie most piteous and 
wicked, I meane the lamentable murther of his innoocent 
25 nephcwes, the young king and his tender brother. Whose 
death and final infortune hathe nalheles so far comen in 
question, that some remain yet in doubt, whither they 
wer in his dayes destroyde or no. Not for that onely that 
P^rticn Perken Werbecke, by many folkes malice, and 

30 W"'"'^* more folkes foly, so long space abusyng the 
worlde, was, as wel with princes as the porer people, re- 
puted and taken for the yonger of those two, but for that 
i^d^tvnge^e^a late daies so couertly demean< 

ran od. 


one thing pretended and an other ment, that there \ 
nothyng so plaine and openly proued, but that ^^^^ j^, 
yei for the comen custome of close and couert i»=™"^i 
dealing, men had it euer inwardely suspect, as many well 
counterfaited jewels make the true mistrusted. Howbeit 
concerning the opinion, with the occasions mouing either 
partie, we shal haue place more at large to entreate, 
yf we hereafter happen to write the time of the late noble 
prince of famous memory king Henry the seuenth, or 
parcose that history of Perkin in any compendious processe lo 1 
by it selfc. But in the meane time for this present matter, 
I shall rehearse you the dolorous end of those babes, not 
after euery way that I haue heard, but after that way that 
I haue so hard by suche men and by such meanes, as roe 
thinketh it wer hard but it should be true. King Richarde i 
after his coronacion, takyng his way to Gloucester to visit, 
in his newe honor, the towne of which he bare the name of 
his old, deuised as he roode to fulfil that thing which he 
before had intended. And forasmuch as his minde gaue 
him that, his nephewes huing, men woulde not recken s 
that hee could haue right to ihe realm, he thought therfbre 
without delay to rid thera, as though the killing of his 
kinsmen could amend his cause, and make him a kindly 
king. Whereuppon he sent one John Grene, 
whom he specially trusted, vnto sir Robert Robcn Bnk- ^t\ 
Urakenbeiy constable of the Tower, with a MaU?o™ihc 
letter and credence also, that the same sir '^°*"- 
Robert shoulde in any wise put the two children to 
death. This John Grene did his errande vnto Brakenbery 
kneling before our Lady in the Tower, who plaineiy ^tf* 
answered that he would neuer putte them to death to dye 
Iherfore, with which answer J iion Grene returning recounted 
(lie same to Kynge Richa^ ^.^a ffl d cj ;^ k 


Wherwith he toke such displeasure and thought, that S 
same night, he said vnto a secrete page of his : Ah whomi" 
shali a man trust ? those that I hatie broughte vp my selfe, 
those that I had went would most surely serue me, euen 
c| those fayle me, and at my commaunderaente wyll do 
nothyiig for me. Sir, quod his page, there lyeth one on 
your paylet without, that I dare well say, to do your grace 
pleasure, the tliyng were right harde that he wold refuse, 
Syr loniM meaning this by sir James Tyrell, which was a 

,g Tyteii. jjj^jj Qj- ^jgijj goodlye parsonage, and for natures 

gyftes, worthy to haue serued a rouche better prince, if he 
had well serued God, and by grace obtayned as muclie 
trouthe and good wil as he had strength and witte. The 
man had an high heart, and sore longed vpwarde, not rising 

IS yet so fast as he had hoped, being hindered and kept 

vnder by the meanes of sir Richarde Ratclife and sir William 

Cateshy, which loriging for no moo parteners 

id.Dihno of the princes fauour, and namely not for hym, 

paraicis- ^vhose pride thei wist would beare no pere, 

20 kept him by secrete driftes oute of all secrete trust. Whiche 
thyng this page wel had marked and knowen. Wherefore 
thys occasion offered, of very spedall frendship he toke 
his time to put him forward, and by such wise doe him 
good, that al the enemies he had except the deuil, could 

ag neuer haue done him so muche hurte. For vpon this pages 
wordes king Richard arose. (For this communicacion had 
he sitting at the draught, a conuenient carpet for such a 
counsaile) and came out ia to the pallet chamber, on which 
he found in bed sir James and sir Thomas Tyrels, of parson 

30 like and brethren of blood, but nothing of kin in condi- 
cions. Then said the king merely to them : What, sirs, be 
1 bed so soone ? And calling vp syr James, brake lo 
retely his mind in this mischieuous matter. , 


whiche he founde him nothing strange. Wlierfore on the 
morow he sente him to Brakenbury with 3 letter, by which 
he was commaunded to dehuer sir James all the kayes of 
the Tower for one nyght, to the ende he might there 
accomplish the kinges pleasure, in such thing as he had 
geuen him com maun dement. After which letter deliuered 
and the kayes receiiied, sir James appointed the night nexte 
ensuing to destroy them, deuysing before and preparing 
the meanes. The prince, as soone as the protector left 
that name and toke himself as king, had it sliewed vnto 
him, that he should not reigne, but his vntle should haue 
the crowne. At which woide the prince sore abashed, 
began to sigh and said : Alas I woulde my vncle woulde 
lette me haue my lyfe yet, though I lese my kingdome. 
Then he that tolde him the tale.vsed him with good wordes, 15 
and put him in the best comfort he could. But forthwith 
was the prince and his brother botlie shet vp, and all other 
remoued from them, onely one called black Wil or William 
Slaughter except, set to serue them and see them sure. 
After whiche time the prince neuer tyed his pointes, nor 
ought rought of hymselfe, but with that young babe hys 
brother, lingered in thought and heauines til this tratoroas 
death deliuered them of that wretchednes. For sir James 
Tirel deuised that thei shold be murthered in their beddes. 
To the execucion wherof, he appointed Miles y... p ^^t 

Forest, one of the foure that kept them, a 
felowe fleshed in murther before time. To him 
he joyned one John Dighton, his own horse- 
keper, a big brode square strong knaue. Then 
Other beeing teraoued from them, thys Miles Forest and 30' 
John Dighton, about midnight (the sely children lying in 
their beddes) came into the chamber, and sodainly lapped 
vp among the clothes, so bewrapped them and 




84 7ffE HTSTORTE OP ' ' ^ 

entangled them, keping down by force the fetherbed and 
pillowes hard vnto their mouthes, that within a while 
smored and stifled, theyr breath failing, thei gaue vp to 
God their innocent soules into the joyes of heauen, leaiiing 
5 1, '° '^^ tormentors their bodyes dead in the 

and hystruiher bed. Whiche after that the wretches parceiued, 
first by the strugling with the paines of death, 
and after long lying sCyll, to be throughly dead ; they laide 
their bodies naked out vppon the bed, and fetched sir James 

lo to see them. Which vpon the sight of them, caused those 
murtherers to burye them at the stayre foote, metely depe in 
tlie grounde vnder a great heape of stones. Than rode sir 
James in great hast to king Richarde, and shewed him al 
the maner of the murther, who gaue hym gret thanks and, 

'5 as som say, there made him knight. But he allowed not, 
as I haue heard, the burying in so vile a corner, sapng 
that he woulde haue them buried in a bettor place, because 
thei wer a kinges sonnes. Loe the honourable corage of a 
kynge I Wherupon thei say that a prieste of syr Robert 

2o Brakenbury toke vp the bodyes again, and secretelye entered 
them in such place, as by the occasion of his deathe, whiche 
onely knew it, could neuer synce come to light. Very trouthe 
is it and well knowen, that at such time as syr James Tirell 
was in the Tower, for Treason committed agaynste the moste 

25 famous prince king Henry the seuenth, bothe Dighton and 
he were examined, and confessed the murther in maner 
aboue writen, but whither the bodies were remoued thei 
could nothing teL And thus as I haue learned of tbem 
that much knew and htle cause had to lye, wer these two 

30 noble princes, these innocent tender children, borne of 
moste royall bloode, brought vp in great wealth, likely long 
to liue to reigne and rule in the realme, by traytorous 
m.depryued of their estate, shortly shitte » 


prison, and priuily slaine and murthered, theyr bodies c; 
God wote where by the cruel ambicion of their vnnaturall 
vncle and his dispiteous tormentors. Which thinges on 
euery part wel pondered, God neuer gaue this world a 
more notable example, neither in what vnsuretie standeth 
this worldly wel, or what mischief worketh the prowde 
enterprise of an hyghe heart, or finally what wretched end 
ensueth such dispiteous cruellie. For first to beginne with 
the ministers, Miles Forest at sainct Martens pecemele 
lotted away. Dighton in dede yet walketli on aliuc in iij 
good possibilitie to bee hanged ere he dye. But sir Jamei 
Tirel dyed at Tower hill, beheaded for treason. King 
Richarde himselfe, as ye shal herafter here, slain in the 
fielde, hacked and hewed of his enemies handes, haryed on 
horsebacke dead, his liere in despite torn and togged lyke l^B 
a cur dogge. And the mischief that he tooke, within lesse 
then thre yeares of the mischiefe that he dyd. And yet 
all the meane time spente in much pain and trouble out- 
ward, much feare anguish and sorow within. For I haue 
heard by credible report of such as wer secrete with his actj 
chamberers, that after this abhominable deede done, he 
neuer hadde quiet in his rainde, hee ncuer thought himseif 
sure. Where he went abrode, his eyen whirled 
about, his body priuily fenced, his hand euer i 
on his dager, his countenance and nianer Hke lyiaumJ.' 25! 
one alway ready to strike againe, he toke ill 
rest a nightes, lay long wakyng and musing, sore weried 
with care and watch, rather slurabred then slept, troubled 
wyth feaceful dreames, sodainly sommetyme sterte vp, 
leape out of his bed and runne about the chamber, : 
was his restles herte continually tossed and tumbled \ 
the tedious impression and stormy remembrance of his 
lable dede. Nowe hadde he outward no long J; 


in rest. For hereupon sone after began the conspiracy, 
or rather good confederadon, betwene the Duke of Buck- 
ingham and many other gentlemen against him. Thocca- 
sion wheruppon the king and the Duke fell out is of 

S diuers folke diuerse wyse pretended. This duke, as I 
haue for certain bene enformed, as soone as the duke of 
Gloucester vpon the death of kyng Edward came to York, 
and there had solemne funeral seruise for king Edward, 
senle thither in the most secret wise he could, one Persal 
10 his trusty setuant, who came to John Warde, a chamberer 
of like secret trust with the Duke of Gloucester, desiring 
that in the most close and couert maner, he might be 
admitted to the presence and speche of his maister. And 
the duke of Gloucester, adueriised of hys desyre, caused 

I ; him in the dead of the night after al other folk auoyded, 
to be brought vnto him in his secret chamber, wher Persall 
after his masters recommendacion shewed him, that he 
had secretly sente hym to shew him, that in this new 
worlde he would take such part as he wold, and wait vpon 

20 him with a . M. good felowes if neede wer. The messenger 
sent back with thanks, and some secret instruccion of the 
protectors mind, yet met him again with farther message 
from the duke his master, within few dayes after at Nol- 
ingham ; whither the protector from York, with many gen- 

25 tlemen of the north countrey to the number of sixe -C. 
horses, was comen on his way to London ward. And after 
secrete meting and communicacion had, eftsoone departed, 
Wherupon at Northampton the duke met with the protector 
himself, wyth CCC, horses, and from thence still contynued 

30 the partner of all his deuises, till that after his coronacion 

thei departed as it semed very great frendes at Gloucester. 

/^From whence as sone as the duke came home, he so lightli 

1 him and so highly conspired against him, 1 

St him, i^^_ 

a man would manieil wherof the cliaunge grew. And 
surely the occasion of theyr variaunce is gf diuers men 
diuersly reported, Some haue I heard say, that the duke 
a, litle before the coronacion among other thinges, required 
of the protector the duke of Herfordes landes, to which 
he pretended himself just inheritor. And forasmuch as 
the title which he claimed by inheritance, was somewhat 
enterlaced with the title to the crowne by the line of king 
Henry before depriued; the protector conceiued such i 
dignadon, that he rejected the dukes recjuest with many i 
spiteful! and minatory wordes. Which so wounded I 
hert with hatred and mistrust, that he neuer after could 
endure to loke aright on king Richard, but euer feared 
his own life, so farfoorlh that when the protectoure rode 
through London toward his coronacion, he fained himself ig 
sick, because he wold not ride with hym. And the tothcr 
taking it in euil part, sent hym worde to ryse, and come 
ride or he wold make him be caned. Wherupon he rode 
on with euil wil, and that notwithstanding on the morow 
rose from the feast faining himself sicke, and kyng Richard ao 
said it was done in hatred and dispite of him. And they 
say that euer after continually ech of them lined in suche 
hatred and distrust of other, that the duke verilye looked 
to haue bene murthered at Gloucester, From which 
nathles he in fair maner departed. But surely some right 25 
secrete at the daies deny this; and many right wise men 
think it vnlikely (the depc dissimuling nature of those 
bothe men considered, and what nede in that grene wodd 
the protector had of the duke, and in what peril the duke 
stode if he fell once in suspicion of the tiraunt) that either 3 
the protector wold geue the duke occasion of displeasure, 
■ the duke the protector occasion of mistrust. And vtterly 
bink, that yf kyng Richard had any such oppinion , 


conceiued : he would neuer haue suffred him to escape hj 
handes. Very trouth it is, the duke was an high minded . 
raan, and euyll could beare the glory of an other, so that 
I haue heard of som that said thei saw it, that the duke at 
5 such time as the crown was first set vpon the protectors 
hed, his eye could not abide the sight thereof, but wried 
hys hed an other way. But men say that he was of trouth 
not wel at ease, and that both to king Richard wel knowen, 
and not yl taken, nor ani demaund of the dukes vncouiteisly 

10 rejected, but he both with gret giftes and high behestes, 

_in most louing and trusty maner departed at Gloucester. 

I^ut sone after his coming home to Breknock, hauing ther 

in his custody, by the commaundement of king Richard, 

doctor Morton bishop of Ely, who as ye befora herd was 

15 taken in the counsel at the Tower, waxed with him familier. 
Whose wisedom abused his pride to his own deliueraunce 
and the dukes destruccionj The bishop was a man of gret 
natural wit, very wel lemed, and honorable in behaueor, 
lacking no wise waies to win fauor. He had bene fest 

20 vpon the part of king Henry while that part was in wealth, 
and naiheles left it not nor forsoke it in wo, but fled the 
realme with the quene and the prince, while king Edward 
had the king in prison, neuer came home but to the field. 
After which lost, and the parte vtterly subdued, the tother 

25 for his faste faith and wisedom, not only was contente to 
receiue him, but also woed him to comi; and had him from 
thence forth bothe in secret trust and very special] fauor. 
Whiche he nothing deceiued. For he being as ye haue 
heard after king Edwardes death, first taken by the tirant 

30 for his trouth to the king, found the meane to set this duke 
in his top, joined gentlemen together in aid of king Henry, 
deuising first the maryage betwene him and king Edwardes 
ighter. by whiche his faith declared and good sermce 


to bothe his masters at once, with infinite benefjte to the 
realna, by the conjunccion of those iwoo bloodes in one, 
whose seueral titles had long enquieted the land, he fled 
the realm, went to Rome, neuer minding more to medle 
with the world til the noble prince king Henry the -vii. 
gate him home again, made him archbishop of Canturburye 
and chaunceller of England, whenmto the Pope joined 
thonot of Cardinal. Thus liuing many dayes in as much 
honor as one man mighte well wish, ended them so godly, 
that his death with Gods mercy wel changed his life. Thys 
man therforo as I was about to tell you, by the long and 
often alternate proofe, as wel of prosperilie as aduers for- 
tune, hadde gotten by great experience, the verye mother 
and maistres of wisdom, a depe insighte in politike worldii 
driftes. ' Wherby perceiuing now this duke glad to comen 
with him, fed him with faire wordes and many pleasaunt 
praises. And parceiuing by the processe of their com- 
municacions the dukes pride now and then baike oute a 
lytic breidc of enuy lovvard the glory of the king, and therby 
feling him cthe to fal out yf the matter were well handled : 
he craftelye sought the waies to pricke him forwarde taking 
alwaies thoccasion of his comming and so keping himself 
dose within his bondes, that he rather semed him to folow 
hym then to lead him. For when the duke first began 
to praise and host the king, and shewe how much profit the aj 
realm shold take by his reign ; my lord Morton aunswered ; 
Surely, my lord, foly wer it for me to lye, for yf I wold swere 
the contrary, your lordship would not I weene beleue, but 
that if the worlde woold haue gone as I would haue wished, 
king Henr)'es sonne had had the crown and not king 30' 
Edward. But after that God had ordered hym to lese it, 
(ind kinge Edwarde to reigne, I was neuer soo mad, that 
aid with a dead man striue against the quicke. So 



was I to king Edward faithful! chapleyn, and glad wold 
haue bene that his childe had succeded hira. Howebeit if 
the secrete judgement of God haue otherwyse proiiided ; I 
purpose not to spume againsCe a prick, nor labor to set vp 
5 that God pulletb down. And as for the late protector and 
now kyng. And euen there he left, saying that he had alredy 
medled to muche with tlie world, and would fro that day 
medle with his boke and his beedes and no farther. 

Then longed the duke sore to here what he would 

lo haue sayd, because he ended with the king and there so 
sodeinly stopped, and exhorted him so familiarly betwene 
them twain, to be bold to say what soeuer he thought, 
wherof he faithfully promised there should neuer come 
hurte, and paraduenture more good then he would wenc, 

IS and that himselfe intended to vse his faithful secret admse 
and counsayle, whiche he saide was the onely cause for 
whiche he procured of the kyng to haue him in his custody, 
where he myght recken himself at home, and els had he 
bene put in the handes of them, wilh whome be should not 

2D haue founden the lyke fauor. The bishop right humbly 
thanked him and said; In good faith, ray lord, I loue not 
much to talk muche of princes, as thing not all out of peril, 
thoughe the word be without fault, forasmuch as it sha] 
not be taken as the party raent it, but as it pleaseth the 

25 prince to conster it. And euer I think 00 Esops tale, that 
when the lion had proclamed that on pain of deth there 
should none horned beast abide in that wood, one that 
had in his forehed a bonch of flesh, fled awaye a great pace. 
The fox that saw him run so faste, asked him whither he 

30 made al that hast And he answered, in faith I neither 
wote nor reck, so I wer once hence because of this pro- 
clamacion made of horned beastes. What, fole, quod the 
fox, thou maist abide wel inough, the lyon ment not by tt 



for it is none home that is in thine head. No mary, quod 
he, that wote I wel ynough. Hut what and he cal it an 
horn, wher am I then? The duke laughed merely at the 
tale, and said ; My lord I waranl you, neither ihe lyon nor 
the bore shal pyke anye matter at any thyng here spoken, , 
for it shall neuer come nere their eare. In good fayth, sir, 
said the bishop, if it did, the thing that I was about lo say, 
taken as wel as afore God I ment it, could desenie but 
thank. And yet taken as I wene it wold, might happen to 
tume me to litle good and you to lesse. Then longed the m J 
duke yet moch more to wit what it was, Whenipon the 
byshop said ; In good faith, my lord, as for the late pro- 
tector, sith he is now king in possession, I purpose not to 
dispute bis title. But for the weale of this realm, wherof 
his grace hath now the gouemance, and wJierof I am my r, 
self one poore member, I was about. to wish, that to those 
good habilities wherof he hath already right many, litle 
nedyng my prayse, it might yet haue pleased Godde for 
the better store, to haue geuen him some of suche other 
excellente vertues mete for the rule of a realm, as our Lorde Z9|j 
hath planted in the parsone of youre grace. 
Thus ends Sir Thomas More's work. 

That the history of ihe reign of Richard III may he 
complete the remainder is given as in ihe continualiou of 
Hardyn^s Chronicle. '$9 

By whiche wordes the duke perceiuyng that the byshop 
bare unto him his good heart and favoure, mistrusted not 
to entre more plains communicacion with him so fane, that 
at the last the bishoppe declared him selfe to be one of 
them that would gladly heipe that Rychard, who then 3ajj 
1 the croune, might be deposed, if he had knower^ 

LgMMd t 


howe it miglit conueniently be brought to passe that suchell 
person as had true title of inheritaynce vnto the same, 
might be restored therunto. Vpon this the sayd duVc, 
knowyng the byshoppe to be a man of prudence and 
5 fidelitee, opened to him all his whole heart and entent, 
saiyng, my lord, I haue deuised the way how the blod both 
of king Edward and of king Henry the sixt, that is left, 
beyng coupled by mariage and affinitee may be restored 
vnto the croiine, beyng by just and true title due vnto them 

10 bothe, (for kyng Rycharde he called not the brother of kyng 
Edward the fourth, but his enemy and mortal fooe). The 
way that the duke had deuised was this, that they should 
with al spede and celerite find meanes to sende for Henry 
earle of Richemonde (whom the rumour went immediatly 

15 vpon knowledge of king Edwardes death to haue bene 
deliuered out of prison with Fraunces duke of Britayu) and 
the same Henry to helpe with all their power and strength, 
so that the sayd Henry would fyrst, by his faithfull othe, 
promise that immediatly vpon the obteygnyng the croune, 

ao he would mary and take to wyfe Elyzabeth, the elder 
doughter of Edwarde the fourth.. J The bishop of Ely right 
wel aiowed bothe the deuice and purpose of the duke, and 
also the nianer and way howe the matter should be brought 
to effecte, and found meanes that Reynold Breye, seruaunt 

25 with Margarete mother of the sayd Henry then marJcd to 
Thomas Stanley, came to the duke into Wales, and the 
dukes minde throughly perceyued and knowen, with great 
spede returned to the sayd Margarete, aduertisyng the same 
of all thinges whiche was betwene the duke and him con- 

30 cernyng as wel the common weale of the realme, as also the 
aduauncement of her and her blood had bene debated. 
Nowe it came so to passe that the duke of Buckyngham 

^. and t^g Margarete mother to the sayd Henry, had b 


in commimicacion of the same matter before, and that the 
sayd lady Margarete had deuised the same meane and way 
for the deposycion of kyng Richard and bringyng in of 
Henry her sonne, the whiche the duke nowe brake vnto the 
byshop of Ely, wherupon there rested no more, forasmuche 
as she perceiued the duke nowe willyng to prosecute and 
further the sayd deuice, but that she should fynde the 
meanes that this matter might be broken vnlo qiiene Eliza- 
beth, the wife of kyng Edward the fourth then beyng in 
sanctuary. And hereupon she caused one Lewes that was ii 
her physician, in his owne name and as though it came of 
him selfe, to breake this matter vnto the queue, saiyng that 
if she would consent and agree thervnto, a meane might be 
found how to restore againe the blood of kyng Edwarde and 
kyng Henry the sixt vnto llie croune, and to be aduenged 1 5 
of kyng Richard for the raurther of kyng Edwardes children, 
and then declared tliat there was beyond the sea Henry 
earle of Richeraond, whiche was of the blood of kyng 
Henry the siut, whom yf she would be content that he mary 
might Elisabeth her eldest doughter, there should of his syde zo 
be made right many frendes, and she for her part might J 
helpe in like maner, wherby no doubte it should come to fl 
passe that he should possesse the croune by most rightful \ 
inheritaunce. Whiche matter, when she hearde it, it liked 
her exceadyngly well, insomuche as she counceled the sayd 25 
phisycian to breake the same vnto his mastresse the ladye 
Margarete and knowe her mynde therein, promisyng vpon 
her woorde that she would make all the frcndcs of kyng 
Rdwarde to take part with the sayd Henry if he would be 
sworne that when he came to the posscssyon of the croune, 30 
he would immediatly take in mariage Elisabeth her eldest 
doughter, or els if she lyued not that tyme, that tlien he 

eCicile her yongest doughter. m 



Whereupon the saj-d Lewes retourned vnto the lady 
Margarete his mastresse declaryng vnto her the whole mynde 
and entent of the quene. So that then it was shortly agreed 
betwene these two women, that with all spede this matter 
5 should be set fonvarde, insomuche that the lady Margarete 
brake this matter vnto Reynold Bray, willyng him to mone 
and set forwarde the same with all suche as he should 
perceiue either able to do good or willyng theninto. Then 
had the quene deuised that one Christopher (whom the 

10 foresayd Lewes the physician had promoted into her semice) 
shuld be sent into Britayne to Henry to geue him know- 
ledge of their mjndes here, and that he should prepare and 
appoinct him selfe redy and to come into Wales, where he 
should fjTid ayd and helpe ynough ready to receyue him, 

15 But then shortly after it came vnto her knowledge that 
the duke of Biickyngham had of him selfe afore entended 
the same matter, wherupon she thought it should be mete 
to sende some messenger of more reputation and credyte 
then was this Christopher, and so kepte him at home, and 

20 then sent Hughe Conewaye with a great somme of moneye, 
willyng him to declare vnto Henry all thynges, and that he 
should hast him to come and to lande in Wales as is 
aforesayd. And after him one Rycharde Guilforde out of 
Keote sent one Thomas Ramney with the same message, 

25 the whiche two messengers came in maner both at one tyme 
into Britayn to the erle Henry, and declared vnto him al 
their commissyons. The whiche message, when Henry had 
perceiued and throughly hard. It rejoysed his heart, and he 
gaue thankes vnto God, ful purposyng with all conuenieni 

30 spede to take his journey towardes England, desiryng the 
ayde and helpe of the duke of Britayne, with promyse of 
thankeful recompence when God should send him to come 
fo^his^i^. ,X^4u^0£^B[iUyne notwithstandyng thaL^ 


btd not long after bene required by Thomas Hutton pur- 
posely sent to him from kyng Rycliard in message with 
mony eftsones to imprison the sayd Henry etie of Riche- 
mond and there continually to kepe and holde the same 
from commyng into England, yet with al gladnesse and 
fauour inclyned to the desyre of Henry and ayded him as 
he might with men, monye, shyppes and other necessaries. 
But Henry whyle he might accordingly appoinct and 
fumishe him selfe, remayned in Britayne sendyng afore the 
foresayd Hugh Coneway and Thomas Raraney, whiche . ii . 
were to him very true and faithful, to beare tidynges into 
England vnto his frendes of his commyng, to the ende that 
they might prouidently ordre aJ thinges, as wel for the com- 
modious receiuyng of him at his commyng, as also foreseyng 
suche daungers as might befall, and auoydyng suche trappes ig 
and snares as by Rychard the thirde and his complyces 
might be set for him and for al his other company that he 
should bryng with him. 

/ In the meane tyrae, the frendes of Henrje with al care, 
study, and dilygence wrought all thyngs vnto their purpose ao 
belongyng, And though al this wer as secretly wrought 
and conueighed as emong so greate a numbre was possible 
to bee, yet priuie knowledge thereof came to the eares of 
kyng Richard, who although he were at the firste hearyng 
muche abashed, yet thought beste to dissemble the matter 25 
as thoughe he had no knowledge thereof, while he might 
secretely gather vnto hym power and strength, and by 
secrete spiall emong the people get more perfect knowledge 
of the whole matters and chief autoures and contriuers of 
the same. And because he knewe the chief and principall 3o_ 
of theim, as vnto whom his owne conscience knewe that he 
had geuen moste just causes of enemite, he thought it 
necessary first of all to dispatche the same duke out of the 



wai& Wherfore, vnto the duke he addressed letters 
eiifarced and replenished with al humanitee, frendship, 
familiaritee and swetnesse of wordes, willyng and desiryng 
the same to come vnto hym with all conueniente spede. 
5 And ferther gaue in commaandement to the messenger that 
caried the letters that he should in his behalfe make many 
high and gaie promises vnto the duke and by all gentle 
meanes persuade the same to come vnto hym. But the 
duke, mistrustyng the fairs woordes and promises so sodainly 

10 offred of hym, of whose wily craftes and meanes he knewe 
sondery examples afore practised, desired the kyng his 
perdon, excusyng hym self that he was deseased and sicke, 
and that he might bee asserteined,that if it possible wer for 
hym to come, he would not absent hym self from his grace. 

15 This excuse the kyng would not admitte, but eftsones 
directed vnto the duke other letters of a more rougli sorle, 
not without menacyng and threatenyng onlesse he would 
accordyng to his dutie repaire vnto him at his callyng, 
whervnto the Duke playnly made aunswere that he would 

20 not come vnto hym whom he knewe to bee his enemie. 
And immediately the duke prepared hym self to make warre 
against hym, and perswaded all his complices and partakers 
of his intent with all possible expedicion, some in one place 
and some in another, to sturre against kyng RichardeJ And 

25 by this meanes and maner, at one tyme and houre, Thomas 
Marques of Dorcester reised an armie within the coitntye of 
Yorke, beeyng hym self late come furthe of sanctuary, and by 
the meanes and heipe of Thomas Rowell, preserued and 
saued from perell of dcathe. And in Deuonshire, Edwarde 

30 Courtenay with his brother Peter, bishoppe of Excester, 
reised in iike maner an armie, and in Kente, Richard 
Guylforde accompaignied with certain other gentlemen 
laysed vp the people, as is aforsaied, and all this y 

in maner in one momentc. ■ But the kjTig, who Iiad in the I 
meane tyme gathered together greate power and strength, ] 
thynkyng it not to be best by pursuyng euery one of his 
enemies to disparkle his compaignie in small flockes, deter- 
mined to lette passe all the others, and with all his whole 5 
puysauQce to set upon the chief hcd, that is to sale the duke 
of Euckyngham : so takyng his journey from I.ondon he 
wente towardes Salisbury to the entente that he might set 
vpon the saied duke, in case he mighte haue perfecte know- 
ledge that the same laie in any felde embatailed. And now ro 
was the kyng within twoo daies journey of Salisbury when 
the duke attempted to mete him, whiche duke beyng 
accompaignied with great strength of Weishemen, whom he 
had enforced thereunto and coherced, raore by lordly com- 
maundement then by liberall wages and hire, whiche thyng 15 
in deede was the cause that thei fell from hyni and forsoke 
hym. Wherfore he beeyng sodenly forsaken of his menne, 
was of necessite constrained to flee, in whiche doyng, as a 
man caste in sodain and therfore great feare, of this his 
sodain, chaunge of fortune, and by reason of the same fear 
not knowyng where to bee come, nor wher to hide his hed, 
nor what in suche case best to doo, he secretely conueighed 
bym self into the house of Homffray Eanaster, in whom he 
had conceiued a sure hope and confidence to finde faithfull 
and trustie vnto hym, because the same had been and then 
was his seruauDt, entendyng there to remain in secrete vntill 
he might either raise a newe armie, or els by some meanes 
conueigh hym self into Britain to Henry erle of Richemonde. 
But as sone as the others, whiche had attempted the same 
enterprise against the kyng, had knowledge that the duki 
was forsaken of his compaigny and fled and could not bee 
founde, thei beeyng striken with sodain feare, made euery 
himself suche shift as he might, and beyng in vtier 





despaire of their helth and life, either gotte theim to sanctu- 
aries or desert places, or els assaied to escape ouer sea, and 
many of them in deede arrived sanely in Britain, eraong 
whom wer these whose names ensue. Peter Curtney bishop 
5 of Excestrc with his brother Edward erie of Deuonshire, 
Thomas Marques of Dorcestre with his sonne Thomas 
beyng a very young childe, John Bourshere, John Welshe, 
Edwarde Wooduile a stoute manne of armes and brother to 
Elizabeth the quene, Robert Wilioughby, Giles Daubeney, 

lo Thomas Harondell, Jhon Cbeiny with his twoo brethren, 
William Berkeley, William Brandon with Thomas his 
brother, Richard Edgecome, and all these for the mosie 
parte knightes. Also Jhon Halwell, Edward Poinlz an 
excellent good capitain and Christopher Urswicke, but Jhon 

(5 Morton bishop of Ely at the self same tyme together with 

soadrye of the nobles and gentlemen sailed into Flaunders. 

But Richarde the kyng, who was now come to Salisbur)- 

and had gotten perfect knowledge that all these parties 

sought to flie the realme, with all diligence and haste that 

20 mighte bee, sent to all the porte townes there aboute, lo make 
sure steye that none of theim might passe vntaken, and 
made proclamacion that whosoeuer would bryng him know- 
ledge, where the duke of Buckyngham wer to bee liad, 
should haue for his reward, if he wer a bondman, 

25 fredome, and if he were free, his pardon and besides tl 
thousande pounde of money. 

Furthermore because he vnderstod by Thomas HutK 
newly returned out of Britain, of whome afore is mencioned, 
that Fraunces duke of Britain would not onely [not] hold 

30 Henry erle of Richeraond in prisone for his sake, but also 
was ready to help the same Henry with menne, money and 
shippes in all that he might against hym, he set diuerse and 
Bondery shippes in places conueniente by all the si 


to Britain ward, that if Henry should come that waie, he 
might either bee taken before his arriuall, or els might bee 
kepte from landyng in any coaste of Englande, And 
furthermore in euery coaste and corner of the realme, laied 
wounderfull waite and watche to take partely any other of 
his enemies, and specially the sajed duke of Buckynghara. 
Where vpon the saied HomfTrey Banaster {were it for mede 
or for losyng his life and goodes,) disclosed hym vnto the 
kynges inquisitours, who immediately toke hym, and furth- 
with all brought him to Salisbury where kyng Richard was. la' 
The duke beyng diligently examined vttcred without any 
maner refusall or stickyng, all suche thyngcs as he knewe, 
trustyng that for his plain confession he should have libertie 
to Bpeake with the kyng, whiche he made moste instaunt 
and humble peticion that he might doo. But as sone 
as he had confessed his offence towardes kyng Richarde. 
he was out of hande behedded. And this death the duke 
receiued at the handes of kyng Richarde whom he had 
before holpen in his affaires and purposes beyonde all 
Codes forbode. t 

While ihese-thynges wer in hande in Englande, Heniy 
erle of Richemond made redy his hoste and strength to 
the number of hue thousand Britons and fiftene shippes, the 
dale appoincted of his departure beeyng now come, whiche 
was the twelfe daie of the monethe of Octobre, in the year 
our lorde God a thousande foare hundred foureskore and 
foure, and the seconde yere of the reigne of kyng Richard 
and hauyng a faire wynde, hoyscd vp the sailes and 
forwarde, but toward the night came suche a tempest that 
thei wer dispersed one from another, some into Briten and 
some into Normandy. But the ship in whiche Henry 
with one other ship, tossed all the night with the waut 

I and tempest, when the mornyng came, it waxed 





lomewhat calme and faire weder, and tliei wer come towanl 
the Southe parte of Englande, by a haueii or porte called 
Poole, wliere the saied Henry saw all the shores and bankes 
sette full of harnessed men, whiche were souldiours apoincted 
5 there to waite hy kyng Richard, as wee haue saied before, 
for the comyng and landyng of the etle. While Henry 
ther abode he gaue c omra ay n dement, that no manne should 
lande before the comyng of the other shippes. And in the 
meane tyme that he waited for them, he sent a little bote 

10 with a few in it aland to knowe what thei wer that sloode 
on the shore, his frendes or enemies. Too whom those 
souldiours, beeyng before taught what thei should saie, 
answered that thei were the frendes of Henry, and wer 
appoincted by the duke of Buckyngham there too abide his 

15 commyng and to conducte hym to those caslelles and 
holdes, where his lentes pauilions and artiliary for the warre 
laie, and where reraaigned for hym a greate power that 
eatended nowe with all spede to set vpon kyng Rychard 
while he was nowe fled for feare and cleane without 

JO prouision, and therefore besought hym to come alande. 

Henry suspectyng this to bee but fraude, after that he 
sawe none of his siiippes apered, hoised vp the sailes, 
hauyng a meruelous good wynde, euen appoincted hym of 
God to deliuer hym from that greate Jeoperdy, and sailed 

25 backe again into Normandye. And after his landyng there, 
he and his compaignie after their laboures, arested them for 
the space of three dales, determinyng too go from thence 
afoote into Britain, and in the meane while sente messen- 
gers vnto Charles the Frcnche kyng, the sonne of Lewes that 

30 a little before departed, besechyng hym of libertee and 
licence too passe thorough Normandy into Britain. The 
young kyng Charles, beeyng sory for his fortune, was not 
finly ready and wel! pleased to graunte his passage, but a 

sage, but ^1^ 

sente hyra money to helpc hytn furlhe in his journey. But 
Henry before that he knewe the kyng his raynde (not 
doubtyng of liis greate humanitee and genllenesse), had 
sente awaie his shippes lowardes Britain, and had sette hym 
self fore ward es in his journey, but made no greate haste till 
the messengers returned, which greate genllenesse when he 
receiued from the kyng, rejoysed his hert and with a, lusty 
Gtomacke and good hope sette forwarde into Britain, there 
to take farther counsaill of his affaires. 

And when he was in Britain, he receiued from his 
ftendes out of Englande knowledge that the duke of 
Buckingham was behedded, and that the Marques of Dor- 
cestcr with a great numbre of the noble men of Englande 
had been ther a little before to seke hym, and that thei wer 
now in Veneti a cite in Britain. The whiche thynges beeyng ij 
knowen to therle, he on the one parte did greatly lamente 
the death and euill chaunce of his chief and principall 
frende, but yet on the other part he greately rejoysed in 
that he had so many and noble menne to take his parte 
in the baltaill. And therefore conceiuyng a good hope and ao 
opinion that his purpose should well frame and come to 
passe, determined with hym self with all expedicion lo 
set furthward, and there vpon wente to a place in Britain 
called Ehedon, and from thence sent the Marques with all 
the other noble men that thei should come vnto hym. 25 
Then when thei heard that Henry was safe returned into 
Britain rejoysed not a Htlle, for thei had thoughte he had 
landed in Englande, and so fallen into the handes of kyng 
Kicharde, and thei made not a little hast till thei were come 
vnto hym. The whiche when thei metle after greate joye 3^ 
and gladnesse as well of their parte as of his, thei began to 
talke of their prepensed matters, and now was Christmasse 
"~ on the which daie thei altogether assembled in the 



t63 tffS mSTORIE OF 

churche and ther sware faith and tnitlie one to another. 
And Henry sware firste, promisyng that as sone as be 
should possesse the crowne of Englande, that he would 
niarye Elizabeth the daughter of kyng Eclwarde the fourth 
5 and afterwarde thei sware feaultee and homage vnto h>-m, 
euen as thoughe he had already been kyng, and so from that 
tyme furthe did take hym, promisyng hym that thei would 
spende bothe their lifes and gooddes with hym, and that 
Richard should no lenger reigoe ouer theini. When this 

10 was dooen, Henry declared all these thynges to the duke of 
Britain, praijng and desiryng hym now of helpe, and that he 
would aide hym with a greater numbre of men, and also to 
lende hym a frendely and honeste some of money, that he 
might now recouer his righte and enheritaunce of the croune 

15 of Englande, vnto the whiche he was called and desired by 
all the lordes and nobilitee of the realme, and whiche (God 
willyng) he was moste assured to possesse, and after his 
possession he would moste faithfully restore the same again. 
The duke promised hym aide, vpon the trust whereof he 

20 began to make redy his shippes that the! might with all 
expedicion be redy to saile, that no tyme should bee iosL 
In the whiche tyme kyng Richard was again retoumed to 
London, and had taken diuerse of theim that wer of this 
conspiracy that is to sale George Browne, Roger Clifforde, 

25 Thomas Selenger, knightes. Also Thomas Ram, Robert 
CUfforde and diuerse other whom he caused to bee put to 

After this he called a parliament, wherein was decreed 

that all those that wer fled out of the land should bee 

3° reputed and taken as enemies too the realme, and all their ,y 

landes and goodes to be forfaite and confiscate. And n 

content with that preay, whiche was no small thyng, I 

^ caused also a great taxe and some of money to bee leuiec 


the people. For the large giftes and liberalitce that he first 
vsed, to bye tlie fauoures and frendshippis of many, had now 
brought hym in nede. But nothing was more like then that 
Thomas Stanley should haue been reputed and taken for 
one of those enemies, because of the workyng of Margaret 
his wife, whiche was mother vnto Henry erle of Richemonde, 
the whiche was noted for the chief hed and woorker of this 
conspiracy. But forasmuche as it was thought that it was 
to small purpose that women could dooe, Thoraas beeyng 
nothyng fauty was deliuered and commaunded that he 
should not sufFre Margaret his wife to haue any seruauntes 
about her, neither that she should not go abrod, but bee 
shutte vp and that from thence furth she should sende 
no message neither to her sonne nor to any of her other 
frendes, whereby any hurte might bee wrought against the 
kyng, the whiche commaundement was accomplished. And 
by the autoritie of the same parliamente a peace was con- 
clxided with the Scottes, whiche a litle before had skirmished 
with the borderers, Whiche thyng brought to passe, the 
kyng supposed all conspiracy to bee clene auoyded, foras- 
muche as the duke with other of his compaignie wer put to 
death, and also certaigne other bannished. Yet for all this, 
kyng Richard was dailye vexed and troubled, partely mis- 
trustyng his owne strength, and partely fearyng the commyng 
of Henry with his compaigny, so that he liued but in a 
miserable case. And because that he would not so con- 
tinewe any longer, he determined with hym self to puttc 
awaie the cause of this his feare and businesse, either by 
policie or els by strengthe. And after that he had thus 
purposed with hym self, he thought nothyng better ihen too , 
tempte the duke of Britain yet once again either with 
money, prayer or some other speciall rewarde, because that 
kepyng therle Henry, and moste chiefly, because 


ro4 THE HlSTOSm &P 

he knewe tFiat it was onely he that might dehuer hym from 
all his trouble by deliueryng or imprisonyng the saied 
Henry. Wherefore incontinently he sente vnto the duke 
certain ambassadoures the whiche should promise vnto hym, 
S beside other greate rewardes that thei broughte with theim, 
to geue hym yerely all the reuenewes of all the landes 
of Henry and of all the other lordes there beyng with hym, 
if he would after the receite of the ambassadoures put theim 
in prisone. The ambassadoures, beeyng departed and come 

13 where the duke laie, could not haue communicacion with 
hym, for as muche as by extreme sicknesse his wittes were 
feble and weake. Wherfore one Peter Landose his treasurer 
a manne bothe of pregnaunt wit and of greate autorilee, 
tooke this matter in hande. For whiche cause he was 

15 afterwarde hated of all the lordes of Britain. With this 
Peter the Englishe ambassadoures had communicacion, and 
declaryng to hym the kyng his message desiered hym 
instantly, forasmuclie as thei knewe that he might bryng 
their purpose to passe, that he would graunt vnto kyng 

20 Richard his request, and he should haue the yerly reuenues 
of all the landes of the saied lordes. Peter, consideryng 
that he was greately hated of the lordes of his owne nacion, 
thought that if he mighte bryng to passe through kyng 
Richard to haue all these greate possessions and yerly 

25 reuenewes, he should then bee hable too matche with theim 
well inough and not to care a rushe for theim, where vpon 
he answered the ambassadours that he would dooe that kyng 
Richard did desire, if he brake not promise with hym. And 
this did he not for any hatred that he bare vnto Henry, for 

30 he hated hym not, for not long before he saued his life where 
the erle Henry was in greate jeoperdy. But suche was the 
good fortune of Englande, that this craftie compacte took 
no place, for while the letters and messengers ranne betwi 


Peter and kjiig Richard, Jhon bishoppe of Ely beeyng then 
in Flaundres was certified by a prieste, whiche came out of 
Englande whose name was Christopher Urswicke, of all the 
whole drcumslaunce of this deuise and purpose. Where 
vpon with all spede the saied bishop caused the saied priest 
the same dale to cary knowledge thereof into Britain to 
Henry erie of Richemond, willyng hym with all the other 
noble ntenne to dispatche theim selfes with all possible 
haste into Fraunce. Henry was then in Venetie, when he 
heard of this fraude without tariauncc sent Christopher vnto 
Charles the Frenche kyng desiryng licence that Henry with 
ihe other noble menne might safely come into Fraunce, the 
whiche thyng beeyng sone obtelgned, the messenger returned 
with spede to his lorde and prince. 

Then therle Henry settyng all his businesse in as good 
staie and ordre as he mighte, talked litle and made fewe a 
counsaill herof, and for the more expedicion, he caused the 
Erie of Penbroucke secretely to cause all the noble menne 
to take their horses, dissemblyng to ride vnto the duke of 
Brytain : but when thei came to the vttermostu partes there 
of, thei should forsake the waie that led them towarde the 
duke, and to make into Fraunce with al that euer thei 
might. Then thei, doyng in euery thyng as thei wer bidden, 
lost no tyme but so sped theim that sliortely thei obtejgned 
and gatte into the countie of Angeow. Henry then within 25 
twoo daies folowyng, beyng then still at Venety tooke foure 
or fine of his seruauntes with hym and feigned as though he 
would haue ridden thereby to visite a fi"ende of his ; and 
forasmuche as there wer many Enghsh menne lefte there in 
the towne, no manne suspected any thyng, but after that he 
had kepte the right waie for the space of fiue miles, he 
foreoke that and turned streight into a wood that was 
;by, and toke vpon hym his seruauntes apparell, and 



» ■ 
as ^H 


put his apparell vpon his seniaunt and so tooke but one of 
theim with hym, on whom he waited as thoughe he had been 
ihe seniaiinte and ihe other the maister. And with all coc- 
uenient and spedy haste so set furthe on their journey that 
5 no lyme was lost, and made no more tariaunce by the waie, 
then onely the baityng of their horses, so that shortely he 
recouered the coastes of Angeow, where all his other com- 
paignie was. 

But within foure daies after that the erie was thus escaped 

ID Peter receiued from kyng Richarde the confirmacion of the 
graunte and promises made for the betraiyng of Henry and 
the other nobles. Wherefore the saied Peter sent out afier 
hym horses and menne with suche expedicion and spede to 
haue taken hym, that scacely the erle was entered Fraunce 

15 one houre but thei wer at his heles. The English menne 
then beyng aboue the numbre of three hundred at Veneli, 
hearyng that the erle and all the nobles wer fled so sodainly 
and without any of their knowledge, were astonied and in 
maner despaired of their liues. 

20 But _it happened contrary to their expectadon for the 
duke of Britain, takycg the matter so vnkyndely that Henry 
should bee so vsed with hym that for feate he should bee 
compelled to flee his land, was not a litle vexed with Peter, 
too whom (although that he was ignoraunte of the fraude 

35 and crafte that had been wrought by hym) yet he laied the 
whole faute in hym, and therefore called vnto hym Edward 
Poynynges and Edward WooduilJe, deliueryng vnto theira 
the foresaied money that Henry before had desired the duke 
to lende hym towarde the charge of his journey, and com- 

33 maunded theim to conueigh and coiiducte all the Englishe- 
men his semauntes vnto hym paiyng their expenses, and to 
deliuer the saied some of money vnto the erle. When the 
a his menne come and heard ihe comfortable newes, 

he not a litJe rejoysed, desiryng the messengers that returned I 
to shewe vnto the duke, that he trusted ere long tyme to 1 
shewe hymself not to bee vnthankfull for this great kindnesse 
that he now shewed vnto him. And within fewe dales after, 
the erle wentc vnto Charles the Frenche kyng, too whom j 
after he had rendred thankes for the great benefites and 
kindnesse that he had receiued of hym, the cause of his 
cominyng firsie declared, then he besought hym of his helpe 
and aide, whiche should bee an immortall benelile to hym 
and his lordes, of whom generally he was called vnto the iq. 
kyngdome, forasmuche as thei so abhorred the tiranny of 
kyng Richard. Charles promised hyra helpe and bade hym 
to bee of good chere and to take no care, for he would 
gladly declare vnto him his beneuolence. And the same 
tyme Charles renioued and took with hym Henry and all jt 
the other noble menne. 

While Henry remained there, Jhon erle of Oxenforde 
(of whom is before spoken) whiche was put in prisone by 
kyng Edward the fourths in the castle of Hammes with also 
James Blount capitain of that castle, and Jhon Forskewe 2 
knighte, porter of the lowne of Caleis, came vnto hym. 
James the capitain, because he lefte his wife in the castle, 
did fumishe the same with a good garison of menne before 
his departure. 

Henry, when he sawe therle, was out of measure glad agj! 
that so noble a manne and of greate experience in battail!, 
and so valiaunt and hardy a knighte, whom he thought to 
bee moste faithfull and sure, for somuche as he had, in the 
tyme of kyng Edward the fourthe, continuall batlaill with 
him in defendyng of king Henry the sixt, thought that now ram 
he was so well appoincted that be could not desire to bee 
better, and therefore communicated vnto hym all his whole 
aifaires, to bee ordred and ruled only by hyra. Not long 


after Charles the Frenclie tcyng remoued again to Paris, 
whom Henry folowed, and there again moued and besoughie 
the kyng as he had raoste fauourably and kyndly entreleigned 
hym all this tyme, not onely in wordcs but also in dedes, 
5 that it would likewise please him yet so muche further to 
extend his fauoure and beneuolence vnto hym, that now he 
would aide and helpe hym forwarde in his journey, that not 
onely he, but also all the lordes and nobilitee of England 
mighte justely haue cause to knowledge and confesse that 

13 by the meane of his fatioure and goodnesse thei were re- 
stored again to the possession of their enheritaunces, whiche 
without him thei could not well bryng to passe. 

In the meane while, his fortune was suche, that many 
F.nglishe menne came ouer dayely out of Englande vnto 

13 hym, and many whiche then were in Paris, emong whom 
were diuerse studientes that fell vnto his parte bothe more 
and lesse, and specially there was one, whose name was 
Richard Foxe a prieste, beeyng a manne of a synguler good 
witte and learnyng, whom Henry streight waie retaigned 

2a and committed ail his secretes unto hym and whom also 
afterwarde he promoted too many high jlromocions, and 
the lastd he made hym bishop of Winchester. 

Kyng Richard then, hearyng of all this conspirade 
of the greate aide that daily wente ouer vnto Heniy, thought 

25 yet for all this, that if he might bryng to passe that Henry 
should not couple in manage with the bloud of king Edwardt 
that then he should dooe well inough with hym and kepe 
hym from the possession of the croune. Then deuised he 
with hym self al the waies and mcanes that might be how 

30 to bring this to passe. And first he thought it to bee best 
with faire and large promises to attempte the quene, whose 
fauoure obteigned, he doubted not but shortely to finde the 
meanes to haue bothe her daughters out of her handes ii 


his owne, and then rested nothyng but if lie hym selfe might 
finde the meanes aftenvard to maiy one of the same daughters, 
whereby he thought he should make all sure and safe lo the 
vtter disapoyntyng of Henry. Where vpon he sent vnto the 
quene, then beeyng in Che sainctuary, diuerse and sondry 
messengers that should excuse and pourge hym of his facte 
afore dooen towardes her, settyng furthe the matter with 
pleasaunte woordes and Jiigh promises hothe to her and also 
her Sonne Thomas lorde Marques of Dorset, of all thynges 
that could bee desired. These messengers, beeyng menne 
of grauitee, handled Ihe quene so craftely that anone she 
began to bee alured and to herken vnto theim fauourably, 
so that in conclusion she promised to bee obedient to the 
kyng in his requestes {forgettyng the injuries he had done to 
her before, and on the other parte not remembryng the 
the promise that she made to Margarete, Henries mother). 
And first she deliuered both her daughters into the handcs 
of kyng Richard, then after she sent priuely for the lord 
Marques her sonne beyng then at Paris with Henry (as ye 
haue heard) willyng him to forsake Henry with whom he 
was, and spedely to retoume into England, for al tilings was 
pardoned and forgeuen, and she agnine in fauoure and 
&endsh_vp of the kyng, and it should be highly for his ad- 
uauncement and honoure. 

Kyng Richard (when quene Elizabeth was thus brought 
into a fooles paradice) after he had receyued al his brothers 
daughters from the sanctuary into his palayce, thought there 
nowe remayned nothyng to be done, but onely the castyng 
awaye and destroying of his owne wyfe, whiche thyng he had 
wholy purposed and decreed within hym selfe. And there 
was nothyng that feared him so muche from this most cruell 
and detestable murther as the losyng of the good opinion 
thought the people had conceyued of liim, for as 


ere 30 — 

ie!l ^ 



haue heard before, he feigned him selfe to be a good man 
and thought the people had estemed him euen so. Not- 
withstandyng shortiy after, his foresayd vngracious purpose 
ouercarae all this honest feare. And first of all, he found him 
5 selfegreuedwiththebarrennesof his wife, that she was vnfruil- 
ful and brought him furth no cbyldren, complainyng therof 
very greuously vnto the nobles of liis realme, and chiefly aboue 
other vnto Thomas Rolheram, then archebishop of Yorke 
(whom he had deliuered a lytle afore out of prison), the 

10 whiche bishop dyd gather of this, that the quene should be 
ryd out of the way, ere it were long after (suche experience 
had he of kyng Richardes compleccion, who had practised 
many lyke thynges not long before) and the same tyme also 
he made diuerse of his secrete frendes preuy of the same his 

15 conjecture. 

After this he caused a rumour to runne among 
comraen people (but he would not haue the auci 
knowen) that the quene was dead, to thentent that she 
heryng this merueilous rumoure, should take so greiious a 

2o conceyte that anone after she should fall into some great 
disease, so that he would assay that way, in case it should 
chaunce her afterward to be sicke, dead or othcrwyse 
murdred, that then the people might impute her dealhe 
vnto the thought she toke^ or els to sickenesse. But when 

25 the quene heard of so horrible a rumour of her death sprong 
abroade among the common people, she suspected the 
matter and supposed the world to be at an ende with her, 
and incontinently, she went to the kyng with a lamentable 
countenaunce, and with wepyng teares asked him, whether 

30 she had done any thyng whereby he might judge her worthy 
to suffer death. The kyng made answere with a smilyng 
and dissimulyng countenaunce and with flatteryng wordes, 
Jiyddyng her to be of good comforte and to placke vp 



heart for there was no suche lliyng toward her that he knewi 
But howe soeuer it fortuned, either by s 
poysonyng, within fewe dayes after the quene was dead and 
aiierwarde was buryed in the abbey of Westmynster. This 
is the same Anne, one of Rycharde the earle of Warwickes 
daughters, which once was contracted to prince Edwarde, 
kyng Henry the sixt his sonne. 

This kyng beyng thus deliuered of his wyfe fantasied 
apace Lady Elizabeth his nece, desiryng in any wyse to mary 
with her, but because that al men, yea and the mayden her i 
selfe, abhorred this vnlawfull desire, as a thyng moost 
detestable, he determined with him selfe to make no great 
haste in the matter, chiefly for that he was in a pecke of ] 
troubles, fearyng least that of the noble men some would 
forsake him and mnne vnto Henry his part, the other at the t 
least would fauoure the secrete conspiracy made againe him, 
so that of his ende there was almost no doubte. Also 
the more part of the comnien people were in so great 
dispayre, that many of them had rather to be accompted 
of the nombre of his enemies, then to put them selfes in a 
jeopardy both of losse of body and goodes in takyng of his 

And amongest those nbble men whom he feared, fyrst ' 
was Thomas Standley and WiUyam his brother, Gilberte 
Talbote, and other a great nombre, of whose purpose though 25 
kyng Rychard was ignoraunte, neuerthclesse he trusted not 
one of them, and least of all Thomas Standley, because he 
had maryed Henryes mother, as it may well appeare by this 
that foloweth. For when the sayd Thomas would haue 
departed from the courte vnto his owne mansyon for his 3 
recreacion (as he sayd) but the trueth was, because he would 
be in a readynesse to receyuc Henry and ayde him at his 
pmyng into the realme. But the kyng dyd iet him, and 



would not siitTre him to departe, vnty!! suche t>'me he had 
lefte in the courte beliynde him George Strange, his sonne 
and heyre, for a pledge. And whyle kyng Rycharde was thus 
I wrapped in feare, and care of the tumulte that was to come, 
5 lo, euen then tidynges came that Henry was entered into 
the land, and that the castell of Hammes was prepared to 
receyue Henry by the meanes of the er!e of Osenforde 

/ whiche then was fled, with James Blunte keper of thecastel, 
vnto Henry. 

ID Then kyng Rycharde, thynkyng at the begynnyng to 
stey all this matter, sent forth with al hast the greatter part 
that were then at Calyce to recouer the sayd castell agayne. 
Those that were in the castel, when they sawe their aduer- 
saries make towardes them, spedely they armed them selfes 

15 to defence, and in all hast sent messengers to Henry, 
desiryng him of ayde. Henry furthwith sent the erle of 
Oxenfotde with a chosen sorte of menne to assyst them, and 
at their fyrst commyng they layde siege not farre from the 
castel. And whyle kyng Rychardes mcnne turned backe 

20 hauing an eye towardes them, Thomas Brandon, with thirty 
valeaunt menne of the other syde, gatte oner a water into 
the castel, to strength them that were within. Then they 
that were within layde harde to their charge that were with- 
out; on the other syde, the erle of Oxeaford so valiantly 

25 assayled them of the backe side that they were glad to make 
proclamacion to them that were within, that yf they would 
be content to gene over the castel, they should haue fre 
lybertie to depart with al that euer they had. The erle of 
Oxenford heatyng this, whiche came onely to saue his 

30 frendes from hurte, and namely James Bluntes wyfe, was 
contented with this condicion and departed in saufegard 
with all his frendes, retumyng backe to Henry, whiche was 
A Paris. After this, kyng Rychard was enfourmed that tl 


Frenche kyng was wery of Henry and his company, and 
would do nolhyng for him, wherby Henry was now not able 
in maner to healpe him selfe, so that it was not possible 
that he should preuaile or go fonvarde in thenterprise that 
he thought to haue taken in hand against kyng Rychard. 
Kyng Rychard beyng brought thus into a fooles paradice, 
tiiought himself to be out of all feare, and that there was no 
cause why he should, beyng so sure, once to wake out of his 
slepe or trouble him selfe any furder, and therfore called 
backe his nauy of shyjipcs that then was redy upon the sea, lo ■] 
whiche was fully furnyshed to haue scoured the seas. But 
yet for the more suretie, least he should be sodenly oppressed, 
he gaue commaundement to the great men dwellyng by the 
sea syde (and specially ihe Welshmen) to watche night and 
day, least his aduersaries should haue any oportunitee toijl 
entre into the lande. As the fashyon is in tyme of warre 
that those that dwel by the seas syde should make becons 
in the highest places there aboute, whiche might be sene 
afarre of, so that when it should chaunce their enemies 
to ariue toward the lande, by and by they should fyre their a 
bekyns and rayse the countrey, to the entent that quickely 
from place to place they might be ascerteyned of al the 
whole matter, and also to arme them selfes spedely against 
their enemies. 

And so to come to our purpose againe, kyng Richard aj 1 
through the aforesayd tidynges, bcganne to be more care- 
lesse and rechelesse, as who say, he had no power to 
withstand the desteny that hong ouer his head. Such is 
the prouidenc justyce of God, that a man doeth leste knowe, 
protiide and beware when the vengeaunce of God is euen at 30 
hand for his offences. And to go furth, at that tyme when 
Henry the erle of Rychemond remained in Fraunce en- 
, suyng for ayde and heipe of the Frenche men» J 


many of the chief noble men, whiche had the realme in 
goueraannce (because of the yong age of Charles the kyng), 
fell somewhat at dissencion, of the whiche variaunce, Lewes 
the prynce of Orlyaunce was the chiefe and heade, whiche 
5 because he had maried John the kynges syster loked to 
haue bene chiefe gouernoure of all the realme. By the 
whiche meanes it came to passe, that one nianne had the 
principal gouumaunce of the realme. And therfore Henry 
therle was constrayned to sue vnto al the nobles seuerally 

ID one after another desiryng and praiyng them of ayde and 
helpe in his purpose, and thus the matter was prolonged. 
In the meane tyme Thomas the Marques of Dorcet (of 
whom we spake afore) was priuely sent for to come home 
by his mother, partely mystrustyng that Henry should not 

13 preuayle, and partly for the great and large promises that 
kyng Rychard had made to her for hym before, Whiche 
letters when the sayd Marques had receyued, he beleuyng 
all thynges that his mother wrote unto him, and also 
thynkyng that Henry should neuer prevaile, and that the 

2oFrenche men dyd but mocke and dalay with him, he 
sodenly in the night tyme conueighed him selfe out of Paris 
and with great spede made towardes Flaunders. The 
whiche thyng when therle and other of the Engllshe lordes 
heard of, they were sore astonned and amased, and with all 

25 spede purchased of Charles the kyng a licence and com- 
matmdement that the Marques might be steyed, whersoeuer 
he were found within the dominion of Fraunce, chiefly for 
that he was secrete of their counsel and knewe al their 
purpose. The commaundement was quickly obteyned and 

30 postes made forth euery way, among whom one Hunifrey 
Cheyncy playing the part of a good blodhound so truly 
smelled out and folowed the trace, that by and by he found 
out and toke the Marques, and so handled and peisu^ 


him with gentle and good wordes, that shortly after he w; 
content to retoume. 

Then Henry, beyng delyuered of this chaunce, thought 
it best to prolonge the matter no further iea&t he should 
loose bothe the present oportunitee and also wery his 
frendes that looked for him in England. Wherfore he 
made haste and set forewarde with a smal army obteyned of 
the Frenche kyng, of whom he also borowed some money, 
and some of other his frendes, for the whiche he lefte the 
Marques and John Burchere behynde for a pledge. And \t^ 
so seltyng forward came to Roan, and whyle he taried ther 
and prepared shippyng at the hauen of Seyn, lidynges came 
to him that kyng Richardes wyfe was dead, and purposed 
to raary with the lady Elizabeth, kyng Edwardes eldest 
doughter beyng his nece, and that he had maried Cicile her ii 
syster to a mans sonne of the land farre vndemeth her 
degre. At the whiche thing, Henry was sore amased and 
troubled, thinkyng that by this meanes al his purpose was 
dashed, for that there was no other waye for htm to come to 
the kyngdome but onely by the mariage of one of kyng 
Edwardes doughters. And by this meanes also he feared 
least his frendes in England would shrynke from him foe 
lacke of an honest title. But after they had consulted vpon 
the matter, they thought it best to tary a lytle to proue yf 
they might get more helpe and make mo frendes. And aj: 
among all other, they thought it best to adjoyne the lorde 
Harbart vnto them, whiche was a man of great power in 
Wales, and that should be brought to passe by this meanes, 
for that the lorde Harbart had a syster maryable, whom 
Henry would be content to mary if be would take their part 31 
And to bryng al this matter to passe messengers were sent 
to Henry the erle of Northumberland, whiche had maried 
^yld bryng this matter 




but the wayes were so besette that the tnessengers could not 

And in the raeane season came veray good tydynges 
frotn John ap Morgan, a temporal lawyer, whiche signified 
5 vnto them that sir Ryce ap Thomas, a noble and valiaunt 
man, and John Sauage fauoured his part earnestly, and also 
sir Reynolde Bray had prepared a great summe of mony to 
wage battaile on his part and to helpe him, and therfore he 
would fhey should make hast with all that euer they could, 

10 and make towarde Wales. 

Then Henry spedely prepared him selfe because he 
would lynger his frendes no longer. And after that he had 
made his praier vnto almightye God that he might haue 
good Euccesse in his journey, onely with. ii. M. men and a 

15 fewe shyppes in the caiendes of August he sayled from the 
hauen of Seyne, and the vii, day after whiche was the xsii. 
day of August, he ariued in Wales aboute sonneset and 
landed at Milford hauen, and in the part whiche is called 
the Dale, where he heard that there was diuers layd in wayt 

20 for him, to kepe him backe. From thence in the mornyng 
betimes he remoued toward a toune called Harford, within 
X. myle of the Dale, where he was very joyfully receiued. 
Here he had contrary tidynges brought to that he heard in 
Normandy afore, that Sir Ryce ap Thomas and John S 

as with al that euer they coulde make, were of kyng Ryct 

Notwithstandvng, they had suche tidynges sent them 
from the men of Pembruche by a valiaunt gentleman, whose 
name was Arnold Butteler, that it rejoysed al their heartes, 
30 whiche was, that if al former offences might be remytted, 
they would be in a redynesse to sticke vnto ,their owne 
Gespare the erle. Then Henries company by this meanes 
»eyng encreased, departed from Herford. v. myle towae 

: heard in n 

^"^ IfYmf 'J^yClTARDE TffE TTTIRDE. tt? ^ 

Cardigane, and then while he refreslied his men, sodeynly 1 
came a rumoure vnto him that the lord Harbart, whiche 1 
dwelled at Carmerdine, was nigh at hand with a great annye I 
of menne. At the whiche rumoure there was a great sturre I 
amoogest them, euery man toke him selfe to his weapon m 
and made them selfes redy if nede were to fight, and a lytle I 
while they were al afrayd, tyll suche tyme as Henry had sent I 
out horstnen to try the trueth, whiche when they came I 
againe, declared that al thinges was quiet and that there 
was no suche thyng. But most of all maister Gryffythes, a lO' 
very noble man, dyd comfort them and gladden their heartes J 
whiche although before he had joyned himselfe to the lorde 1 
Harbert, at that very tyme he cleued to Henry with suche I 
company as he had, although they were but fewe, and the 1 
same tyme came John ap Morgan vnto him. Henry went ij; 
styl forwarde and taried almost in no place, because he 
would make sure worke and the better spede, he inuaded 
suche places afore that they were armed against him, the 
whiche places he bette doune with very lytle strength. But 
afterwarde, hauyng knowledge by his spyes that the lord so 
Harbert and Sir Ryce were in a redynes to geue him battaile, j 
he determined to set vpon them, and either to put them to 1 
flight or els to make them sweare homage and feaultee vnto 1 
him, and to take them with him in his host against kyng 
Rychard. And because he would ascertayne his frendes 25 
in England howe al the matter went forwarde with him, he 
sent his moost trusty frendes to the lady Margarete his 
mother, to Standley, to Talbot, and to other of his most 
especial frendes with cerlayne commaundementes. The 
effecte of the commaundementes were, that he intended with 30 
the helpe of his frendes to passe ouer Seuerae and by 
, gjjtewesbnry to make toward London. Therefore he desired 

.'■with those that were of their councel, in tyme and m 


Its TffE ffrstoitm OF 

place conuenicnt, to mete him. So the messengers goyng 
forth with these commissyons, Henry went forward toward 
Shrewesbury, and in the way mdt with sir Ryce ap Thomas 
with a great noraber of men whiche came Vnto him and was 
5 of his part. For two dayes afore Henry promysed him to 
be chiefe ruler of all Wales as sone as he came to the croime 
(if he would come vnto him) whiche afterward he gaue 
to him in dede. In the meane tyme the messengers execu- 
tyng the message diligently returned backe agayne with 
TO large rewardes of them to whom they were sent, and came 
to Henry the same day he entred into Shrewesburye and 
shewed howe all his frendes were in a redynesse to do the 
vttermost that lay in them. This tidynges put Henry in 
suche great hope, that he went furth with a courage and 
15 came to the toune of Newporte and there set up his 
tentes vpon a lytle hy], and there lay all night. That night 
came to him Sir Gylbert Talbot with aboue two hundred 
men. After that they went furth to StafForde and whyle 
they were there, Willyam Standley came to him with a few 
20 after him, and when he had talked a lytle with him, returned 
backe againe to his hoost whiche he had prepared. From 
thence he went to Lichefelde and that night lay without the 
toune, but in the momyng betime he entred into the citee 
and was receyued honourably. A day or ii afore, Thot 
sc Standley was there with fyue. M. men armed, whiche, 
he knewe of Henries commyng, furthwith went afore to 
village called Aderstone there to tary tyl Hemy came. 
This he dyd to auoyde suspection, beyng afrayd lest king 
Richard knowyng his intent would haue put his sonne lo 
\ 30 death, whiche, as I telled you before, wa.s left with him as a 
I pledge for his father. But kyng Rychard in the meane 

^^ tyme, which then was at Nottyngham, hearyng that Hemy 
^^^H with a few more of banished men was entred into Wales,. 


lighfly regarded the matler. that he thought it was not i 
lo be past vpon, for that he came in with so fewe ia 
nombre, and that the lorde Harbarte and Sir Ryce, whiche 
were rulers of all Wales, would eylher kyll him, or els take 
him and bryng him aliue. But afterward, when he reraem- 
bred him selfe that oftentymes a smal matter in batel, if it 
be not loked vnto bctymes, would make at the laste a great 
sCurre, he thought it best to remedy the matter betymes 
and commaunded Henry the earle of Nor thumb er! an de with 
other of the nobles of the realme (whom he thought had set 
more by him then by their owne goodes) to rayse vp an 
army and to come to him with spede. Also he sent dmers 
messengers with letters to Robert Brakynbury, keper of the 
Towre of London, coramandyng him to come vnto him in 
all hast, and to bryng with him, as felowes in battail^ Ji 
Thomas Burschere, Walter Hungreford and diuers other 
knightes, whom he dyd not a lytle suspecte. 

In this tyme it was shewed that Henrye was come to 
Shrewesbury without any hurt. With the whiche tydynges, 
the kjmg began to rage and make exclamacion against 
them, that contrary to their faithes they had vtterly deceyued 
him, and then he beganne to mystrust all mennc, and wysle 
not whom he might truste, so that he thoughte it best to sette 
fourth him selfe against his aduersaries. And furthwith he 
sent out spyes to knowe which way Henry dyd take. They 31 
when they had done their diligence retoumed backe againe 
and shewed him howe that Henry was come to Lichefelde. 
The whiche thyng after he knewe, because nowe there was 
a great nombre of souldiers come together, by and by his 
men set in aray, he commaunded them forwarde, and to go 
iiii and iiii together, and by that way whiche they kept they 
heard say, their enemies were commyng. The suspecte 
te. put in the middes, he him selfe with those he 



trusted came behynd, with wynges of horsemen nmnyng 
on euery side. And thus kepyng their order, aboutesoni 
set came vnto Leicestre. 

When Henry in the mcane season had remoued 
5 Lichefeld vnto the next village called Tamworth, in 
mydway he met with Walter Hungerford, Thomas Burschier 
and many other more, whiche had promised to ayde him 
afore. And for because they perceyued that they were 
suspected of kyng Rychard, and least they shoulde be 

JO brought violently vnto him, beyng their enemy, they forsoke 
Robert Brakenbuiy their capitayne and in the night tyme 
stole priuely away and went to Henry. Unto whom there 
chaunced by the waye that was worthy to be marked, 
whiche was that Henry, although he was a man of 

15 noble courage and also bis company did dayly encrease, 
yet for al that he stode in great feare because he was 
vncertayne of Thomas Stanley whiche, as I teUed you 
before, for the feare of puttyng his sonnes to di 
inclyned as yet vnto no part, and that the matter was 

zo so slender of kyng Rycharde, as rcporte was made to 
of his frendes. 

Wherfore, as all afrayde without a cause, he toke onely 
twenty men with him, and steyed in his journey as a man in 
dispayre and halfe musyng with him self what was best 

35 be done. And to aggrauate the matter, tidyn; 
brought him that kyng Rychard was commyng nere to 
him with a great and houge boost of men. And whyle 
thus lyngered for feare behynd, his boost came afore to the 
toune of Tamworthe, and because it was then darke night, 

30 he lost bo the his company and also his waye, then wandryng 
from place to place, at last came to a lytic village, ili. inyle 
from his hoost,beyng ful of feare, and lest he should fal into 
flie daunger of the scoutwatche he durst not aske a quesl 

Q you 

as i^H 



of any man, and partly for the feare that was present, and 
partely for that was to come he lay there that night and toke 
this for a signe or a pronosticacion of sorae great plage that 
was to come, and the other part of his hoost was no lesse 
abashed seyng his absence for that tyme. When 
momyng Henry came to them in the h'ghl of the day he 
excused the matter that he was not absent because he had 
lost his way, but rather of purpose, because he would com- 
mon with his preuy frendes whiche would not be sene in the 
day. After that he went priuely to Aderstone where Thomas 
Standley and Willyam his brother dyd dwell. Here Henry, 
Thomas, and Willyam mette and toke other by the hand 
with louyng salutacions and were glad one of another. Then 
after they counceled together of their metyng with kyng 
Richard whom they perceiued not then to be farre from 
them. That day when it drewe toward night, in the euenyng 
John Sauage, Erytanne Sanforde, Symon Digby with many 
other had forsaken kyng Rychard and came to Henry with 
a great power of menne, whiche power and strength sette 
Henry aloft againe. In the mean season kyng Rychard at 
whiche purposed to go throughe thicke and thinne in this 
matter came to Bosworth a lytle beyond Lecestcr where the 
place of battail should be (as a man would say the high 
justice of God, whiche could not be auoyded, hangyng ouer 
his head, had called him to a place where he should suffer 25 
worthy punishement for his detestable offences) and there 
he set vp his tentes and rested that night. Afore he went 
to bed, he made an oration to his company with great vehe- 
mencye, perswadyng and e.xhortjng them manfully lo fight. 
And afterward, as it was sayd, he had a terrible dreame in 
his slepe, semyng that he sawe horrible deuilles appeare vnto 
him and puUyng and halyng of him that he could take no 
^yag^rhicbe vision fylled him full of feare and also of ' 





care when he waked. For by and by after, beyng i 
greued in his raynd, he dyd prognosticate of this dreame B 
eui! luckc and heuye chaunce that after came to him, and 
he came not with so chereful a countenaunce vnto his com- 
S panye as he was wonie to do. Then, least they should 
thynke that be had this heauynesse for the feare of his 
enemies, he stode vp and rehersed vnto thetn al his dreame. 
But I thynke tliat this was not a dreame, but rather his con- 
science pricked with the sharpe styng of his mischeuous 

10 offences, whiche although tlicy do not pricke alway, yet 
nioost commonly they wyll byte moost towarde the latter 
daye, representyng vnto vs not onely them selfe, but also the 
terrible punishement that is ordeyned for the same, as the 
sight of the deuill tearyng and halyng vs, so that therby (if 

15 we haue grace) we may take an occasyon to be peniteut, ot 
els for lacke of the same dye in desperacion. Nowe to come 
to my purpose againe, the next day after, kyng Richard 
hauyng al thinges in a readynesse went furth with the armye 
out of his tentes, and began to sette his men in aray ; fyrst 

20 the forwards set furth a merueilous length bothe of horse- 
men and also of footemen, a veray terrible companye to 
them that should see them afarre of; and in the formost 
part of al he ordered the bowmen as a strong forlresse for 
them that came after, and oner this John the duke of 

25 Northfolke was head captaine. After him folowed the kyng 
with a mighty sorte of men. 

And in this while, Henry, beyng departed from the 
communicacion of his frendes, without any lariyng pytched 
his tehtes nere his enemies and laye there all night and 

30 commaundedhismen to be in a redynesse. In the mornyng 
he sent also to Thomas Standley, beyng then in the middes 
. betwixt bothe hostes, that he should come nere with his 

^^^^^miye. He sent him words againe that he should set t 

^ JtYi^G 'JTYCffAPnE TffE THTRDE. 123 ' 

men in an ordre ty! he came; with the whiche answcre, 
otherwise then he had thought or then the matter did 
require, he was not a httle abashed and stode as it were in 
doubt. Yet for all that he taryed not, but with all spede set 
his men in an order, the forwarde was but slender, because 1 
his nombre was but fewe, the archers were set in the formost 
pane. Ouer them John the erle of Oxenford was heade 
capitain. In the right wyng he set Gilbert Talbot. In the 
left he put John Sauage. And he hymself with the helpe of 
Thomas Stanley folo wed with one compaignie of horsemen i( 
and a fewe footemen, for all his whole compaignie were 
scant fiue thousande besides bothe the Stanleis with their 
compaignie, of the whiche William Stanley had thre thou- 
sande. The kyng his armie was double to all tliis. And si 
when bothe armies were all in a redynesse and began 1 
come within the sight of other, thei bragged furthe them 
selfes of bothe parties, lokyng onely for the signe and token 
of strik[i]ng together. Betwixt bothe hostes, there 1 
marresse whiche Henry left on his right hande purposely as 
a defence of his raenne, he found the meanes also to haue ao | 
ihe brighte sunne on his backe, that it might dasill the yies 
of his enemies. 

But the kyng, when he sawe Henry passe ouer the 
marresse, commaunded his men with all violence to set vpon 
theim. Thei by and by with a sodain clamor let a 
flee at theim. On the other side thei paied them home man- 
fully again with the same. But when thei came nere together 
ihei laied on valeauntely with swerdes. Therle of Oxforde 
fearyng least in the meane tyme kyng Richardes multitude 
should haue compassed in his men, whiche were but a few, 'i^ 
he comroaunded them by fiucs thei should not moue for- 
ward past ten foote, the whiche commaundement knoweo, 
knit them selfe together and seased not in fightyng; 


their aduersaries beeyng afraied suspected some craft or gyle 
and began to breake of, and many of the same part wer not 
muche greued therwith, because thei were as glad the kyng 
should be loste as saued, and therefore thei fought with lesse 
5 corage. Then therle of Oxford, with his men thicke together, 
stroke on more freshlier. The other of the other part did 
likewise the same. And while the first wardes of the battail 
had fought so manfully, Richard perceiued by his spies 
Henry afar of with a fewe compaigny of armed men. After- 

10 ward comyng nere, Richard knewe him by signes and tokens, 
then beeyng inflamed with an anger, furiously stroke the 
horse with the spurres and ran out of the one side of the 
hoste, and like a lion ran at hym. On the other side Henry, 
perceiuing hym commyng, was very desirouse to mete him. 

ig Richard at the first settyng furth killed diuerse that stoode 
before him, again he threwe doune Henryes banner and 
William Brandon the bearer also, he ran at Chciny, a man of 
great might, whiche came for to mete hym, and with great 
violence ouerthrewe hym to the grounde, and thus he made 

20 hymself a waie through them for to come to Henry. But 
Henry kepte better tacke with hym then his men would 
have thought, whiche then was almoste in despaire of the 
victory. And euen at that time lo there came William 
Stanley to aide them with thre thousand men, and euen at 

zg the very same tyme the residue of kyng Richardes men 
put to flight Then Richard fightyng alone in the midi 
of al his enemies was ouerthrowne and slain. In the meant 
tj-me therle of Oxford in the forward, after he had fought 
manfully a tittle while, put the residue to flight of whom he 

30 slewe a great numbre. But a great numbre more, whiche 
folowed Richard more for feare then for loue, helde their 
handes from fightyng and went awaie without hurte, for that 
tt^i looked notfor his safegard, but rather for his destniccioBL 


There wer slain at this conflict not many more than one .M. 
of the whiche these wer noble men : Jhon duke of Norffolke, 
Walter Fens, Robert Brakyngbury, Richarde Raddiffe and 
many other more. And within .ii, daies after, WilUara 
Catisby lawyer with certain other of his felowes was put to 
deth at Leicester, and enionges those that ran awaie was 
Fraunces Louell, Humfray Stafford, with Thomas his brother, 
and many other more that ran into sanctuary at Colchester 
in Essex. Ther was of the captiues a great numbre, because 
that when kyng Richard was slain, euery man cast doune la 
his wepon and yeld hym self to Henry, of the whiche the 
more parte would haue dooen so at the beginnyng, if it had 
not been for feare of kyng Richardes spies, whiche then 
wandred in euery place. And emongest these, the nobles 
wer iherle of Northumberlande, the erle of Surrey, of the ly 
whiche iherle of Surrey was put in prisone, the other as 
a frend was receiued into fauor. Henry at that feld lost not 
aboue a .C. men, emongest whom the chief was William 
Brandon whiche bare Henries banner. This battaill was 
fought in the -xxvii. daie of the monethe of Auguste, in the aa 
yeie of our lorde -M. cccc. Ixxsvi. the conflict indured more 
then two houres. Richard might (as the fame went) a saued 
hym self if he would a fled awaie, for those that were about 
hym, when thei sawe his men from the beginnyng fight but 
faintly and that some were ronne awaie to the other part, 23 
suspected treason and willed hym to flie, and when the 
matter was manifest that all hope of victory was paste, thei 
brought hym a swift horse. He puttyng aside all hope and 
trust that was in fliyng, made (as it was saied) this answere, 
that this daie he would haue either an end of battail or els 3' 
of his life, suche was his great audacite and manfulnes whiche 
because he did se certainly that in this daie he should obtain 

igdome quietly all daies of his life or els lose bothe 





foreuer, he entred in emongest theim, as it was decla 
before, intendyng vtterly either to Ipse all or els to win ril. ' 
And so the wretche died, hauytig the ende that al suchewer 
wont to haue, whiche in ihe stede of lawe, honesty and al 
S godlinesse folowe tlieir owne appetite, viUany and all wicked- 
nesse. And plainly this [is] an example whiche cannot bee 
expressed, to feare them whiche will not suffre one houie to 
bee otherwise spent then in cruelte, mischief and al deuelishe 
fasions. Henry when he had thus obtained the victory he 

lo fell doune on his knees and, with many praiers and thankes, 
referred all to the goodnesse of God. Then after he stoode 
vp heeyng wonderfully replenished with joye, and wente vp 
vpon a little hil! and there gaue greate commendadons la 
his souldiours, coramaundyng theim that were hurte to bee 

iSheled and the ded to bee buried; afterward he gaue im- 
mortal! thankes to his noble capitains promisyng them that 
he would neuer forget their henefite. The multitude in the 
meane time with one voyce and one minde proclaraed him 
kyng. When Thomas Stanley sawe that, he toke kyng 

20 Richarde his croune whiche was founde emongest the apoiie, 
and by and by put it vpon Henries hed as though he had 
been then created kyng by the elecc on of e peop e as it 
was wont to be in the old tyme, and th as h fi s token 
of his felicite. After this kyng Hen y h h s con paigny 

25 and carriage wente to Leicestre towa de n gh e 00 bed, 
where, after he had refreshed his compa n e e I for ihe 
space of iwoo dales, that thei might the better go towarde 
London, Kyng Richardes body was brought naked ouer a 
horse backe, the hed and the armes hangyng on the ore 

30 side and the legges on the otlier, and caried into the Grey 
Friers of Lecester, and surely it was but a miserable sight to 
looke vpon, yet it was good inough consideryng his wretched 
S without any solempnitee was buried 


daies after. He reigned two yercs two monethes and 
daie, he was but of a small stature hauyng but a deformed 
body, the one shulder was higher than the other, he had 
a shorte face and a cruell loke whiche did betoken m.ilice, 
gyle and deceit. And while he did muse vpon any thyng 
standyng, he would bite his vnder lippe continually, wherby 
a manne might perceiue his cruell nature within his wretched 
body striued and chaffed alwaie within hymself, also the 
dagger whiche he bare aboute hym, he would alwaies be 
choppyng of it in and out. He had a sbarpe and pregnaunt 
witte, subtile and to dessimule and fain very mele. He bad 
also a proude and cruell myndc, whiche neuer wente from 
hym to the houre of his death, whiche he had rather suffer 
by the cruell sworde, thoughe all his compaignie did forsake 
hym, then by shamefuU flight he would fauoure his life, 
whiche after might fortune by sicknesse or other condyug 
pimyshemente shortely too perishe. 


, ine 1. kyng Eibeardt.-.tki fooirth. His reign commenced 
(see Nicolas' Chratelogy of Hislery, p. 305I 4th March, 1461. He was 
crowned iSlh or igth June rollowing and died ylli April, 14S3. 

7. that is to tsitle. The phrase is more full tlmn usual, "that is" 
meaning exactly the same as " lo witte." So that the meaning is doubly 
expressed. It = " thai is to say" or "namely," 

8. Edwarde Ike Frynce, afterwards Edwani V. 

9. Elixaitth, aflianced during her father's lifetime lo the dauphin, 
bat afterwards married to Menry VII. 

11. Cicily, the promised bride of the King of Scots, afterwards 
married to Viscount Welles. Halle adds after "jayre": " firsle wedded 
lo the VicouQte Welles, after lo one Kyne, and lived not in great 
wealthe." See below, iij. 16. 

II. BTigilte\wssxz a nun in a 
at Dartford was founded, in honoi 
King Edward III. See Duadale. . 

at Dartford. The convent 
Mary and St Margaret, by 
■!«, II- 3S7- Halle has "at 

ttidget was the daughter of 
on her mother's side of St 
nd had them put int 

" before " in Denforde. 

13. her vihose nami iki bare. St 
Dublach, a man of Lcinsler, and nieci 
Ultan, who collected the accounts of her 

poetry. She look the veil in order to escape marriage, and became 
abbe^ of Kildare, 

15. Anni, contracted first to Philip of Burcilndy and afterwards 
married to Thomas Howard who became Duke of Norfolk. 

t6. Katherym, affianced first to the infant of Spain, but married 
William Courlenay, Earl of Devon. Halle says " Kalheryne, the 
youngest daughter was maried to Lorde William Courtney, soime to 
therle of Devonshire, whiche, &c." 

33. grialifunirall honaure. The account of King Edward's funeral 
is given in Sandford's Genadogical llislory, pp. 391 — jgi. "The 
maimer oF this King's interment was thus; ^rst, the corpse was 
covered from the Navel to the knees and so laid upon a board 
hU naked, and so continued ten or twelve hours, that alt (he Ix)rds 
both Spiritual and Temporal then being in London or about might look 
on biin, and the Lord Mayor and his brethren saw him so lying, and 
then he was seared (i, e. emialmef). Then, on the morrow after, he was 
I IW^ into the Chapel of St Stephen (now tbe House of Commons] 


Tjo mstosY oP srrtG srcffAsB rir. 

where there were three masses snng, the first of our Lady, the second of 
the Trinityt the third of Requiem; and in the aflemoon there was sung 
Dirigi and Commina'ani, and at night well watched with his nobles aod 
servants. He rested in this order eight days, and on Wednesday being 
Ihe ijth day of the month of April above said, ihe body was conveyed 
into the Abbey of Westminster, borne by several KnightE and Esquires 
that were for his body, having upon the corpse a rich and large black cloth 
of gold with a cross of cloth of silver, and above that a rich canopy of 
cloth imperial, fringed with gold and black silli, borne by four Kni^ls, 
having at the corners four banners, also borne by four Knights, the first 
of the Trinity, the second of our Lady, the third of St George, and the 
fourth of St Edward. My Lord Howard bate the King's banner before 
(he body, the Officers of Arms about him on every side. 

In the Hcrse in Westminslei Abbey above the body and Cloth of 
Gold aforesaid was a personage like to the simibtude of a king, in 
habit Royal, crowned with a crown Royal on his head, holding in 
one hand a Sceptre and in the other hand a ball of Silver gitt with a 
cross patee. 

When the mass and all other solemnities were performed the body 
was placed in a chariot drawn by ax. horses, and so with that pomp 
that was required went to C&in'nj Cross, where the Chariot was censed, 
and from ihence to Syon, where it was received that night with the 
usual ceremonies; from thence on the next morning they departed in 
good order to Eton where they were received by the procession of 
IVindsBT, and at the Castle gate the Archbishop of York and the Bishop 
of Winchtsley ccaseA the corpse; and from dieoce they passed to the new 
Church where in the quire was ordained a marvellous well-wrought Herse 
being that night watched with a. good company of Nobles and Esquires 
of the body, and was there buried with all solemnities befitting so great 
and so victorious a King, and had this rhiming Epitaph composed for 
him registred in a Book in the College of Arms." (Then follow t6 Latin 
hexameters in praise of the King.) 

P. 1, line 5. bclauid vjlh. We now use by after behmcd. In 
Shakespeare the phrase is always beluved <>/ (never by), 
II. in efficte. We should now say in fact, cf. 4. 19, 
rj. in that that. The modern use would omit 01 
cf. for the repetition il. 33. 

15. grov/eit, old past part, oitagrew, now contracted into ji 
Cf. Gascoigne's Sleel Ulas, "Yet now I stand prinking me in the g 
when the crowes foote is growtn under mine eye." 

16. straungi, i.e. reserved, distant, shy about exhibiting. C£, 
Shaks. Com. of Err. 11. 1. iia, " Look itrnHge and frown." So THit. 
II. 3. ISO. "If he were proud, or covetous of pmise, or slrangi, or self- 
affected. '■ 

17. patsonaae, i.e. personage, Lot. persona, whence we gel our 
word parson = c!eigy man, who was the representative person of the 

ij. consyder. This seems to be a sort of conditional tense = If uj^ 
le should consider; the relative who so being equivalent lo if any. ^^| 

bat" "^^k 

oyJtd. Halle reads here "ad voided Ihem." Cf. Shaks. Coric 

I hiid feared death, of all the .men i' the woild 
1 would have voidid thee. " 
The style of this History is somewhat Euphuistic, i.e. il has nv 
instances of sentences, nicely balanced in onlei and number of words, 
and with occasional instances (as here in voyded, z/ainfuissAfd) of allite- 
ration, after the manner of Lyly's £upbues, and other works of the 
Elizabethan times. Cf. 4. 14, 1$; 8. 1&, 3^, &c. 

18. 6aorelyi=b\a\y. From baor^rmttc, hence ilout, ilrong, large. 
P. 3, line J. /^jJVi/= lessened. Ci.ChoMcei.FranteUinis Tale, i\tq, 
"And on his way than is he forth y-fare 
In hope lo ben /«rj^of his care. 
'oxl, in the sense of giiiU, tnlirely. Cf. Shaks, Tvv) GenlUmtn, 1. 
" "A silly answer and titling lacU a sheep." 

n expectation. Cf. Shaks. As You Lite II, v. 4. 35, 
"There*is, sure, another flood Imvard.'' 

inch as no manni loBkid frr-e\.-ftxXe,&. Cf Matt. xi. 13, 
14. trybiiti Bull of Fraunet. This was Ihe annual pension of 
50,000 crowns settled lo be paid lo Edward IV. by Louis XI. after 
Ihar treaty at Picquigny. See Lingard, iv. too. 

16. Barwycke, i.e. Berwick-upon-Tweed, yielded to Edward by 
the Scotch in 14S1. 

19. Halle adds after "estemtd" " then those highe humilltees." 
II- fietlc, mien, carriage. Pultenhsm, Arte of Jinglish PiKsie, 306, 
" port oiixale." Sliaks, a ffrn. VI. IV. 1. 15, "/inV of genlleman." 

uMonaj-rif^ kindly, Fr- dc bon air. Cf. Tmilus and Cressida, i. 
3- sjSi 

" Courliers as free, as debonair, unarmed. 
As bending angels. " 
»4. Wyndisare. Here Halle reads " Haverynge at the Bower." 
IB, used with Ihe pres. part, as we often find on or a, lo give more 
fulness lo the expression. Cf. i Sam. ii. 13, "While the flesh was in 

48. chert meant originally ^I'f, then it was applied to thai whii^h 
had an effect on the face, which gladdened or enlivened ; to mirth and 
spirit, then lo the entertainment which caused them. Cf Lever's Ser- 
fwu, p. 7Q, " They rose up by rebellion and have lost all the chert of 
that feast." 

30. mot, more. Cf. Putlenham, Arte ef English Pcasie, 55, 
■e excellent examples." 

J line 6. towardenesu, docility, capability of being Caught. Cf. 
tai, Scmaiia, xjo, "This kind of dispensaIion,.,seemeth not eon- 
ii.^t 9 !.._.. ._... g (here is good proof of great lowardnat 


Pjb history of jTWe srcHAnn in. 

kinds, kin, relationship. Cf. Shiks. Periclis, V, I, 68, "Came 
intle kind, and noble stock." 

hadde Iioldm place, i.e. had had any eflecl, had had their proper 
influence. Cf. for a like phrase Barton's Analomy, p. 352, "They 
were both cured by reading when no prescribed physic would toAt 
flace" (i.e. have any efTect). And p. 359, "When this last engine 
woold laki no place (have no influence) they left him to his own ways." 
■ tindert. This is the Old English form of the plural number, 

.,. beraie. For the use of this verb not followed as it commonly 
^ by the preposition e^ cf. Chaucer, Wife of Bath's Prologue, ^-jl, 
" But Age alias that al wo!e envenyme 
Halh me birafi my beaulee and my pith." 
i. intreate, treat of. Cf. Lyly'a ILufhvts, p. S3> "For me 10 
U of the one, being a novise, I may well make you weajy. " 
y. a noble niantu anda migkfie. This order of adjectives was Dot 
. nmon in Old English. Cf. Luke miii. 50, " A ^aoA man and a 

V ii. kinge Henryi his bloode, Le.^'ii.eDTy's'blooA. A common 
EBiistake in Elizabethan English- See 5. 1. 

sg. a gDodlye Prinei, \. e. Edward the Lancastrian Prince of Wales, 
jurdered by the retainersof Edward IV. after the battle of Tewkesbury. 

P. s, line r. prcuente—\Q anticipate. Cf. Bacon's Advaruanenl 
few. Aldis Wright), p. »6r, "Man is not to /r^m* his time." 
■^ Wakefelde. The battle was fought 31 Dec. r^Go. 

«flj'«= princes. Shaks. King John, 11. i. 395, 

"How like you this wild counsel, mighty states f" 
slsmacie, temper, couri^e. Cf. Bp Pilkington's fVorkt, p. jg, 
I" With such words of fear and power must all stubborn uomachs lie 
pulled down." 

18. at Ihe lesl wise. We should now say a/ iioi;. 

in enough in some parts of England still. 
■will, past tense of an Old English verb, iwVfln=to know, 
nected with both Tiiise and loil. Cf. Bp Pilkington's Worts, p. 443, 
wise man should not say. Had I Tiiisl this or that, I woiild have 
^^trovided for this and that." 

16. egall, equal, Fr. igal, IM. ae^ualir. See Pntlenham, Arte of 
JSagiisi Foeiu, p. 57. "Vertue ilselfe is not in every respect of tgall 
value and estimation." 

17. uw(£rr= inferior to. Cf. Sir Thomas More's Utopia {Pill 
Press Series), 97. 17, where speaking of gold he says, "And then who 
Uoeth not playiielye se howe farre it is ujvier iron?" 

a8. ill felured, ill made or formed. Feature Is Lat. factura from 
facia, to make, fashion. We should only now cse It of the face. See 
Shaks. Sonnet jocix. 6, 

" Featured like him, like him with friends possessed." 


133 ' 

30. hard fattmircd, ugly. See Burlon's Anal, of Mel. p. 481, '■ 
old hard/avaured man fast asleep in a bower." 

slala, see on 1. 5. HaUe has " such as in estales is called a warlike 
visage, and emong commen persones. a crabbed face." 

31. warlye, weird-like, used of things having a malignant influence. 
The writer uses this word as a sort of enphemisni, rather than employ 
of B great prince such an epithet as hu/iaus or ugly. Of oilier men 
he would used another word. 

P. 6, line l. aJae. This noun is now not much employed, but is 
known from the title of Shakespcaie's play "Muchai/fl about nothing." 
Cf. Gosson, Sched of Aiuse. p. aS, "As one said at the shearing of 
liogs, g;rea.t cry and little wool, much oofp and small help." An example 
of •'jnoreoo'oe"i3inMillon, TractaU on EJuialien (Pitt Press Series), 
p. 8. 

t. borne outwardt, earned forth, as for burial, feet foremost. 

5. ellfi, otherwise, else. The orthography is that of the lyird in 
A. S., which form was preserved for a long time in Middle English. 

7. none, we should now say na. Cf. Hawes, Pastime ef Fleasuri, 

"They hadde none order nor no sledfastnes." 

8, nultly. In Early English this word is often found as an adjec- 
tive. Cf. Mtners' Froissart, vol. I. c. 175, "He was a knight mttely 
to be the leader of men of arms," 

Cf. also Chaucer, Ramaunt of the Rose (Bell's Ed.), vol. vil. p. 40, 

" Fetys he was and wel beseye 

Wi&i melely mouth and yen greye." 

II. dysfienee, expenditure. Sec Spenser, Faerie Queene, b. u. c. Ii, 

"Was poured forth with plentiful diifeiue." 

13. ^1', instead of ^/. Cf. 7s. 17. 

14. pil, cob, pillafe. See Thos. Lever, Sermnns, p. ig, "And the 
pooTeflockc.inDst miserablye/y/Zn/, and spoyled." 

15. diiHmuIer, dissimulator, dissembler, concealer of the truth, 
Fi. dissimuler, Lat. dissimulare. For the vBib dissimulefiee Formularies 
ef Faith, p. 159, "All they which. ..will wink thereat and rf/uimji/iiL" 

16. Urwlyi of eounieynaunce, humble in manner. For coiaitenanet 
in the sense olmanntr, see Shaks. As You hike It, 11. 7. 108, 

"And therefore put I on the lottalenanei 
Of stern commandment." 

17. n)Hm/i>Mi& = friendly. Apparently the same word as «»i- 
faniaile, for which see Bacon, Hm. VII. (Pitt Press Series), p. 117. 4, 
" comfaiiiable and respective and without jealousy." Also CbRUCei, 
Shipman's Tale, line 4, " A wyf he hadde of excellent beaulee and eom- 
faigitable and revelous was she." Halle has instead " familiei." 

fc//iji,f= omitting. Cp. Bacon, Hen. VII. (Pitt Press Series) p. ijg. 15, 
"^King Ferdinand would not let to counsel the King in his own aHairs." 
The Oiiginal has after, but this appears to be a misprint. 
ry common in English, but More uses il, Works, p. 984, , 


•• I dare say tlat ther are bul few, but that they had wel lever abidtB 
paine to be ihiise acquilcd by proclamacitm, luid petBdventnie ^ 
then once beare a lagot for heresy." 

2T. mucluwhat. H'liatis used in older EneliA Irequenlly M if It 
could take the place of on indefinite Qoun. Cf. Spenser, A Q. VI, 9, }> 
"And gave him for to feed 
Soch homely what as serves the sunple clowne," 
e. such plain food of any kind. 
So Spenser, Sh(p. Calelid., July, line 19, 

" Come downe and leame Ihe little lohal 

That Thooialin can sayne," 1 

R teme which survives in the word lemfia/iat. An example neuefi Eke I 
that in our text is Spenser, Shif. Calttid., SepL, 104, I 

"Then plainly to speak of shepherds, most what I 

Bad is the best," \ 

i.e. for the most part. And so liere the sense is "Friend and fee was 
for the most part inililTercnI." Cf. lielow, 61. 33. 

s8. bomt, i.e. bom. For the usage, cf. bhaks. K. yehn, 11. 104. 

"Geffrey was thy elder brolher borni" , 
sg. drifti, intention, meaning, plan. Cf. Shaks. Eomte, IV. 1. 114, 
"In the meantime shall Romeo by my letters know our drifi." 

31. Ihea he that wer, i.e. than any one that was — than if he? were — ■ 
The connexion of the whole sentence is: Hb design secretly com- 
municated to some one did not fail to help forward Clarence to bis 
death; which death Edward in outward appearance resisted, &c. 

33. VKtth, well-being. Cf. Formularus of the Faith, p. 167. ''To 
use our tongues in tm£ to the wtalth of our neighbours. Compare 
also the Prayer-Book Caltat in Comm. OJ^a, "Thai she may study to 
preserve thy people committed to her charge, in ivealli, peac^ and 
godliness." Jlis vielth of course means Clarence's welfare. 

P. 7, line I. fartthought, to devise, plan, consider beforehand. Cf. 
Earle's Micre-Cesmagniphie, p. 76, " Ue-./orethinks what will come 
hereafter." _J 

3. decease, A\e. "Lai. decedere. Cf. Lyly's fiiMwi, p, 104, "CMHI 
I deeme you would be content if I were deceased.' ' j^| 

9. enler^rited, undertook, attempted. Cf. Bp Pilkisgton's Wc*lB^ 
p. 137, "It is written of Gedeon, when ho enterprised that venlurow^ 
act lo fight against God's enemies." 

II. as'wel=aa likely, ores easily. 

13. iel/t = sKna. We still use the word eomponnded with same, 
ttlfiaau. For sel/e see Gascoigne's Sl/ti Glas, p. ig, 

" And flesh and blood in this sel/s.oTtK is (ryed." 

Ij, Reddarosse streti. Red Cross Street ran between Golden 
Lane and the end of the present Jewin Street, terminating at St Giles' 
Church, Crippl^ale. See Msitland's Histury iif Lamba, 11. gaS. 

letliH ill, i.e. kt in. ^^h 

»i. t^far.f, iting tmeard A(>» = being connecled with, or engaged I 
aliout him. The pfEcise sense of the word as here used is of t!" 
occunenis. Ha.lle has " being his setvaunte." 

11. inielyitge, iiikVaig, suspicion. CC Ij^V/i Eu/ikua, "Tbalm 
father have no ™iAH^heereoH/' 

13. t/nangiti, for ng reisoo, withoBt ct 

16. fiinmiiaied, i.e. had previously act his mind oo. I have nut 
met with this word elsewbeie. 

17. at ersfe— for the first lime. Erst, thoagh in form [he superlative 
lioin ere, is eeneratly used in tlie sense oS/armer/y, as in Shaks. Pericla, 
I. t. 49, "bick men. not at earthly joys bs trst they did," but 
when precettoi bjr at, erst = (iist- Cf. Chaucer, Saond A'un's Tail, \i,\, 

" And then «( (r« to hym thus seyde she." 

30. spede, success, good speed. Cf. Shaks. Winter's Tale, III. 2- 
I46, " With mere conceit and fear of the queen's spied." 

31. vsurpaciott. As the Latin word usiirpalio is often Used with- 
out the sense of umn^^/ seizure, so the English word seems lo be here. 
See Shaks. yinui and Adonis, 591, "A sudden pale...<«ur/ii her 

3J. wisU. See above, p. 5, 1. 23. 

,S^=helped. old past lense of /o hilji. CI Shaks. A". JcAn, " Sir 
Robert never Aulp to make this leg." 

P, 8, line 4. forthtrlye, fai^jurable, such as Mfurlktr his intention. 
8. aiust— lo make a wrong use of, employ wrongfully. 
Utu...Mhir, contmclion for (he era. ..the other. 
t(. thertfia-e, for it, Le. ere they expected it. Cf. Shaks. % Hen. 

VI, L X. 3, " Wr •>"■ Himfnrr nrnulrtcrl " 

16. yrkcit, Si 
1. ai, ■■itiVfame.- 

to. hable, able, a 
Utopia, 14. 8. "A mi 
fbunde leamyng." 

itt perceitted. In the original it is recHiied, but probably this is a 
DligpiinL Halle has " pereeived." 

ai, dyjfayred. We now generally use the verb with a preposition 

Tj. ammodity, advantage. Cf. Sit Thos. More's Utopia, 77. 33, 
" For the eammodisie of the common wealth." 

96. /A«mjrj^= themselves i frequent in this History. 

II}. adutrlisematte, instruction, information, notice. Cf. Bji 
Coverdalc's Works, p. JI7. " Besides this we ought not lo cease with 
wttmingand adverUstiamt ...'^\3\. ihey may leave off from their obstinate 

31. the Lordi Marqtiis Dorsetle. This was Thomas Grey, pre- 
viously Lord Grey of Groby, and then in 1471 created Earl of Hunting- 
don, and in 1475 Marquis of Dorset. He resigned the earldom af 
"^-'ll^onin 1479, which title was then conferretTon William Hortwrt,,<|^^^ 
If Pembroke. 


P. 9. line 4. 6ari kym sort, exactly; 
noyed at." The phrase is not common 
only a rendering of the Latin. 

5. caplayne of Calyct. From the reign of Edward HI. lo thai of 
Queen Mary, Calais was in the posses»an of the English. 

6. IjiriU Ryutrt. This was Richard WoodvUIe, who wai 
Vjm\ of Rivers in 1466. This title iras extinct in 1496. 

8. thai Ihey loied/or, that Ihey expected to have had. S« 
p. 3, I. 5. 

to. presence, the royal presence. Spenser, F. Q. iii. 5. i( 

" She came inpnstnee with light comely grace." 
vnderselle, propped up. Sec Daniel, Civil fVari, vill. 17, 
"Now when she had uf fatal Lancaster 
Seen all the pillars crushed and ruined 
That unda-set il." 
13. by ■whiihe, wherefore, from which cause. 
laok, i.e. expect. Cf. (for this use with the infinilive) Shales. Tiaf. 
V. iQi, " As you took to have my pardon." 
16, lyke. liltely. Cf. Lyly^ Euphm 
itb thee as with the eagle." 

kappelyi, haply, perchance: Cf. Shaks. Measurt fir Measure, 

"It is lyie t< 

underpropped, stipportEd, upheld. Cf. Shaks. Kitis John, v. 

"\Vliat penny hath Rome borne... 
To underprop this action?" 
s5. So/, unless. Ci. Shaks. Merchant 0/ Venice, v. 1. 10S, 

" I'll die for't iul some woman had the ring." 
gree, agree. Cf. Shilis. Merchant of Venice, 11. s, 108, " How grte 
you now?" 

1^. /ii<t/=that which. Cf. P. B. yd Celled in Morning Pr^^/er, 
" lo do always that is righteous In thy sight." 

98. far hatred of tch of others parson. This may be = for the 
haired which each one bears to the Other's person ; but it would be 
licttcr English to omit the second of. and then the sense would be 

^w^niBni', make progress, lo besuccesaful. Cf. Shaks, .MiuA. 
i/^t's Dream, IV. 1. 6, " 1"he play is marred, it goes net for 
Jr. shall haue more place, i.e. shall be more used, be u 
It, and more influential. 

n the CI 

to ruiite. Here the verb is 

r, and signifiei 
■' &c. Cf. la. 

hU if, unless. Cf. Sir T. Elyot, GavtrnBur. 
may nol be an oiatour, but if he have gotten the knowledge of a.11 
thioges, and arles of grealesi importance." 

5. driftit, designs, intentions. See Shales. Much Ado, II. 1. 403, 
"I will tell yoQ my drift." 

6. dram, to drive, The word is used in ihe sense of fome, but 
piobabty the sentence was a soil of alliterative proverb of the time. 

10. agreuclh, maies grievous, or painfal and annoying. Cf. South, 
5m»o»j, VIII. I, "Pains that aJEict Ihe body are afflictive just so long as 
Ibey actually possess the part which they Bg^iietii" We still use com- 
monly enough the past participle aggrirved. 

14. ntrt appears to he — never : an itistance is given la Halliwell's 
Glossary from ms. Arund. Coll. Ar. 17, fol. 130, 

"A semilier (iiemlier) to min sithe {it'gitT} saw I ner non." 

15. *>| ■»'«'*>= immediately, presently. The expression is common 
in this book. Cf. Shaks. Two GcntUmen, 1. 3. S7, 

ig, fl^J 

And by and by a cloud takes all away." 
iiic, relntionship by marriage. See Daniel, CinU Vi 

" With unlucky stars he married. 
For by the meana of this affiiiily 
Was lost all that his father Conquered." 
10, beare that loeygklt. i.e. have that influence. 
14. K^=sttme, see above, selfi nighle, p. 7, 1. rj. 
30. slales. Here the meaning seems to be a little wider than above 
5. 5, thoughhere the sense ^riBfi!! will suffice. But probably it includes 
all persons of high position. Cf. The csiales of the realm. 

P. II, line I. TBonrshif, i.e. honour, being treated as a person of 
vmrlk, Cf. Shaks. Winl. Tale, l. 1. 314, " Whom I from meaner form 
have benched and reared to inorship. " 
3. gnnaeti, see above, p. a, I. 15. 

7. caitrlesye of mentia knees, i.e. the reverence shewn by the 
bending of the knee, Cf. Shaks. Xich. II. i. 4. 33. 

" A brace of draymen bid Cod speed him well. 
And had the tribute of his supple knee." 
9. silken, since, more commonly written silintee or sith. The 
present form is found in Wycliffe, 1 Pet. iii. 4, " For sUheit the fadrii 
dieden all thineis Insten fro the begynnyng of creature." 

gaint'ealUd, i.e. called back again. This sense of gain 
pounds is rare. Most frequently it is, as in gainiay, equal to against, 
■^nK|W6 (ind g3income = coming again, in Chaucer, Ttstanunt 4'' 


ffisTOsr OP jcra 

Alaollie-fymW^of Inwyt = the remorse (apiin ■¥ H//) of conscience, 
while again buying and again buyer are common in Old English for 
rtdemption and ndteniir. 

ID. eughte Ttue beivare. In Ihe oldest English the infinitive hiLving 
a disttDctive termination needed no prepoiilion to precede it. In 
modem lanefuage to is insetted artEi all but a verj fe« verbs which are 
called auxiliaries (and with them the verb fa dar/j. But this was 
not so constantly observed in EliiBbcthan English. Cf. Shaks. Jul. 
Ctaar, i. i. 3, " You augil net walk." 

II. tftiioomi, presently. Ct Shaks. Pa-iela, v. i. 156, "Eftsoom 
ni teU thee why." 

14. eestyns. It is customary Tor royal personages to use the word 
coutin oral! princes and dignified persons who are their friends though 
not blood relations. Cf. fir. 11. 

16. Iht lase lesst iiier they, i, e. They (my children) would be the 
less loss, on whom though God should do his pleasure (an euphe- 
mistic expression for their being removed by a natural death) yet Ihe 
realm would find Kings. 
. II. looke, expect. Cf. 7. 1. 
f 16. ^rifuer, grievances, vexations. Cf. Shaks. 1 /A«. /I^ JV.i, 69, 

i "I 

Find our grirfs heavier than our offences. " 

39. hinrrd. Here as distinguished from qffiuily, the word implies 
cimsaaguimty, blood relationship. 

30. surely, security, safety. Cf. More's Utefiia, 134. r;, "They 
prefer the same greaterewardeswith pardone and sutrtie of their lives. 

31. tkeraaitJial. Al in this word, as in withal, adds nolhine to the 
meaning of the word, which is simply equivalent lo thernvirk, Cf. 
Latimer, Sermons, p, 161, "The arte of a g[ift of God Ihal 
he hath geven us to excell all other nacions -jyik all." 

P. ri, line 1. recomfirtittg, consoling, cheering. See Spen. F. 
IV. 8. 5, 

"Him to recomfort io bis greatest care," 
The ri in some compound words appears to have lost all fbrM^ tl 
recomfose is used as simply equal to eompose. 

3. stand ■aiit/i, be agreeable to. Cf. Formularits of Faith, p. n 
" It slandclh viilk the very due order of charity, a Chnstiauic — — ■ 
for the souls of the departed." 

8. his dtcntse, i.e. the king's death. 

his houskeld, Le. the princess honsebold. 

to. 'Oiat begun, we should now say had begun. 

ir. risars, plunderers. The root is the same as tliat of til 
nyllable of beriar/e, and is connected with reb. The n 
phy is reive. Cf. Ecmcrs' Froissart, 11. 

i nyllable 


^^^ NOTES. 139 ' 

tberor there is nolher Englyshe, nor Frenche, aor robbers, not reivers 
ilul dolh them irnjr hurl to the value of one penny." 

II. eittAfasvn, cause, reason. Cf. Spenser, Shephtrd's Caltnilar, 
M»J. 1- 147. 

"Thou raylest on right without reason, 
And blames! hem much for small eHcieaum," 

14. rtfraine, uscii as an active verb = (o restrain, hold in check. 
Cf. Bemers' Froisaarl, 11. cap. 100, ' ' But fynally he rifreyned his tiiK- 
plessure by the good means oflbe queen." 

ij. ituttragi5^<sa.\sa^s.. The lirst e is only kept because the 
writer would have spelt the word out as ante. 

30. ii/i<r= others. This form for a plural i.s common in the older 
Enelish. Cf. Bp Pilkii^on's Jfimfri. p. ;, "Phinees... punished that 
wii3:ediieES which sther winked at." 

ij. ««/=nearest. Cf. More, Mo/ia (Pitt Press Series), 113. i3, 
"They know this to be [he next way to bieak love between man 

93, drifle, i.e. scheme, plan, that at which she was driving. 
1^1. (f fOHlk, in youth, i.e. during the king's youth. Cf. Sbaks. 
Lira/s Laieur's Zoil, l. i. 43, 

"And not be seen to wink o/ all the day." 
tS. tearing himself their faiter. Himsilf is here the dative, and 
Ihe sense is "bearing their favour towards himself," "favourably in- 
clined towards himself." Ualle has or to "bcare toward hymselfe any 

brake, disclosed. Cf. Shaka. Maclieth, 1. 7. 48, 

" What beast was't then 
TTiat made you break this enterprise lo me?" 
V^. by mouth. The modem expression is iy toord ofmoulh. 
33. lequalred, separated, withdrawn. Cf. Sir Thos. More's IVinii, 
p. 1046. "Him Iialh (kid the Father specially ji;/«ff(rA^ and severed 
and »el asde out of the number of al creatures." 

in m<iHfr= almost. Cf. loS. iB and note there. The speaker 
here means that not only was the prince kept away from them but 
ihey were almost prevented from approaching him in any way. 
P. 13, line I. eughl, owed, Cf. Shaks. 1 Hen. JV. lu. 3. 1 ji, 

"You oaghl him a thousand pound." 
4, vnmetety, unfit (an adjective). Cf. Sir Thos. More's Works, 
p. 1316, "Sninte Peter havynge our Savyour in suche estimacion and 
lionoure as it well became hym to have, thoughtc it in hys mynde tm- 
mtttly that his Lorde and Mayster shoulde weshe hts feete." 
w who say, i.e. as one may say. Cf. 1 13. 16, 111. 13. 
rem, away from, apart from. Cf. Shaks. tVinler's Tale, IV. :. 
: is seldom yrw) the house of a most homely shepherd." 
wel prourd, Le. those who bare given full proof of what they 

tuil viitlers, i.e. those who wish us evil, ll-'ell-vi/leri is found 





Shalts. Mirry IVmis, i. 1. jt. " Be ruled by your hw// viiiltrs." Cf. 
Ps. CKxiit. 6 (Pr. Bk.). "AstnanynshaveifT'iVw^/atSion." 

ti. namely which is, which is especially. Foe namely in this sense 
cf. Mote's Utopia (Pitt Press Series), 159. 5, "thankynge him for so 
many beDefites..,buC namely that he hath chaunced into that publyquc 

lighte ofbiliffe, quick in belief. Cf. Shaks, Lear, III. 4. 95, " False 
of heart, li^t of ear," i.e. easily credulous. 

14. bende, band, company. Here used of the queen's relations who 
were in great favour with Edward IV. Cf. below, is- 'g' 

stodt with, i.e. stood ■ailh = vias consistent with. Cf. Shaks. Cffriela- 
tmt, II. 3. 01, "If it may slandimth the lune of your voices that I may 
be consul.'' 

to. holden bellir flaci, i.e. been of more influence. Cf. below, 
liiie3J, and see Shalts. Mtrehaat, I. i. 174, " To hold a nt^ place with 
one of them," i.e. to have as good a chance of success as any of tliem. 

II. bctrapped, enlrapped. Cf. Mirrour for Magistrates, p. 307, 
" How Ihey conspire another to lutrap" 

13. confasioa. The word here is used as in Isaiah xxiv. to, 
xiidv. 11 in the sense of distruction. Cf. Halle, Henry IV. foL 146, 
"Kynge Rycharde, perceivyng them armed, Itaewe well that they came 
to his canjuiion." Cf. also 17. i, 

34. eur Lord, the reference is (o God and (o His Grace. 

vj. Hy«jwf= knowledge. The noun is not very common, but cf. 
Fabyan, Chronicle, c. 117, "When Constantyne had leyllytigc'^c assem- 
bled a great hoste of Brytons." 

might almse the name of his commaundemeitt, i.e. might make a 
wrong use of the plea of the prince's command: might pretend Ihcy 
were bidden by the prince, and on that pretence do anything they 

ig. vndoing, ruin, destruction. Cf. Holland, Pliny, b. XXXIII. c. 11, 
"Their rich ptale set their enemies teeth on water, who for the love and 
desire thereof, jiractised by all cunning means their utter undaiHg," 

prouisioa. In Ihe literal sense of Lat. ^n5Mo!f«= foresight. Cf. 
Shaks, Tempesl,\. j. sB, "with such /rm'uwn in mine art." 

31. atlentmenie, i.e. o( fl»«n(n/ = setting at o 
cord. Cf. Bp Hall, Satires, 111. 7, 

be in accord, out of 

P. 14, line I. of, i.e. out of. Cf. Milton's Par. Last, IX, jSj, 
"How earnest thou speakable 5/" mule?" 
and 7H, "I ^/hrutc human, ye p/ human Gods." 

houerly, of onl^ an hour's duration or formed i 

nee ihat ihey were. Cf. Sbaks. ' 
) p/" perfect love." 

s that learning and trulh I 
.e It Ecffe." 

, , , See abov 

jHcie olAer, similar ones. 
8. etAe, easy. Cf. Spenser, Shepherd i Calindar, September, I. 1 7, 
"Ech thing imparted (Le. shared with sotne one el^e) is more tath to 

IS- amoue, remove. Cf. Speed, Hislitry 0/ CI BrilaiH, anno 1130, 
"The King of Connaught and his Irish had invaded the King's people | 
with a purpose and hope ullerly to ei:pel and aiiiavc our Dation liom J 

16. vndir lie nanii of, i.e. on pi 
Taming of lAe Shrew, IV. 3. 11, 

"He does it uitdtr n 
19. Aim, i.e. the king- 
II. Aim, i.e. the Duke of Gloucester, to whom also the Ait in line 34. 

14. (/r»f^/(M»i, doubtful, nncettain. More frequently spelt f/mi^inuf. 
See More, tt^aris, p. 457, "Either the Scripture is plaine and easy to 
perceive of doublausi and hard to understand." 

35, ri<_^iM= appearance. Cf. Shaks. Timpest, I. 1. 104, 
"Executing the outward face of royally." 

17. brought in the mynd, brought to the opinion. Cf. Shaks. As I 
You Lite It, III. 3. 91, 

"I am not in the mind but 1 » 

mernede, i.e. « 

aS. Jeepc 

"The torefronles of frontiers of the ii corners, what w'ilh iordes and 1 
shelves, and what with rockes, be yerye /eofierdeui and daungerous." 

lie tingle come vp strong, i.e. for the king to come to London wit 
a strong force. 

"Sir mirth her by the finger had 
Daunsing, and she him also, 
Great love was atwixl hem two." 

P. 15, line 3. enptigned, fought against, was fighting against, n 
opposing. Cf. Shaks. JIferckatU, iv. 1. 197, 

"The Venetian law cannot impugn you." 

8. fall ml a rffw=break out into an uproar. Roar in 
now obsolete. We use uproar. But cf. Fox, Acles, p. 656, .A't'iff 4 
.^dwd. /l^., "He perceiving his enemies dayly to increase 
-— A all the countries about to be in a rare making fires & 


II. t'n Ihe Tvyght^va Che blame. It is now more frequenll^ ^pell 

\vnU. Cf. Spenser, ^. G- Vt. 3. l6, J 

^^^^^ "He passed forth with her in fair array ^^H 

^^^^k Fearless who aught did [hink or augtit did sa.7, ^^H 

^^^H Sith his own thought he knew most dear from wile." ^^^k 

^^^^r ig. btTuk. See above, p. i.?, 1. 14. ^^| 

^^^^ 53. solvr, moderate, limited. ^^1 

' iR. Thi* hinni/ fnr till* tiimibpT nf rnilp^ wau Iprt fn hff PIW hti hi a " 



The blank for the numbei of miles w 
vi^on of the work for which Sit Thomas nc' 
about eleviH miles south of Northampton. 

sp. w, ere, before. Cf. Laliraec, Salmons, p. 355, "The preil 
an was gone forth about such affairs as behoved him, er I came.' 
31. iticoHtinmte, immediately. Cf. Shaks. Eichaa^ II. v. fi. 48, 

"Put on sullen black inconlinail." 
33. lodged, i.e. gone away Co his lodging. 

P. 16, line 6. la horsebatkward, i.e. toward horseback, about tn 
mount on horseback. For this separation of the two parts of the prc- 
poulion, cf. 1 Cor. iii. 4, "Such trust have we through Christ w 
God ward." 

13. biestowed=-^3.ceA. Cf, a Kings v. 24, " he took thcro from theii 
hand and bestoTned ^aa in the house." 

16. for as muche as, &c. This was the language in which the 
dulce's adherents excused their proceedings. 

19. bare.. .in hande. The phrase signifies " to be always 

do something and never performing it," hence "toillude with false a9 

teoces." Cf. Shaks. Cymbeline, v. j. 43, ^^ 

"Your daughter, whom she bare tn hand tl 

With such iotegritj, she did confess 

Was as a scorpion to her sight." 

II. gaiie. A remnant of the Old Engtsh mfinitive 

, hence goen or gone for a time continued to be the infinitive folj 

The older English had both gangan and^a» as infinitives. 

84. for neiighte, for no reason. Cf. ofnoughle, 7. 33, above. 
s6. sUhe, sfiice. Cf. Shaks. 3 Henry VI. 1. 3. 41, 
"Thou hast one son; for his sake pity me. 
Lest in revenge thereof, lith God is just, 
He be as miserably slain as I." 

17. geat=zst. 
ktepe hinisil/e close, i.e. hide and lie in concealment. Cf. i 

1, "While David yet kept hiaiself dose because of Saul." 
30. surelii. "Uppon the snretie of his own conscience"m 
:sehe was secure and confident in his mind about his osvnin 

t for the end, Cf. Sha 

^■- /TOTES. 143 

TroilM, I. 1. 16, "He that will have a cake oul of ihe wheat miisl 
needs tarry Ougrindiag." 

6. pHltt him in warde, i.e. placed him under a gunrd, in confine- 
nt, in prison. Cf. Gen. Klii. 17, "Yie. put them ail logeClier into 
rd three days." 

8. Stanjft Straiferdt is in Buckinghainshire on tiie banks of the 
Onse, and on the oppoaUe side of that river is Old Stratford in the 
^onty of Noithampton. 

II. streighu, narrow ; strait is now the more common spelling. 
The thtm in the previous line means the duke and his compuny. 
II, adirwnc, down. Cf. Spenser, A 0. I. 8. 3, 

"Then took that Squire an home of bugle small 
Which honge adawnt his side in twisted gold 
And tasselles gay." 

14. yomtn. According to Spelman (see Wedgwood's Glosaajy, a. 
,) connected with Germ. ^u=-t. district, country, place, village, and 
) Frisian ^imBn = vill^;er. 

15. rawma, places; here = the order of marching, cf. St Matt, xxiii. 
6, "They. the uppermost rooms at feasts, and the chief stats in 
Ihe synagogue." 

16. lalued, saluted. The influence of the French forms such as 
taluer, &c. prevailed largdy in Elizabethan times, and modified many 
preterites us in the text. Cf. Spenser, F. Q. iv. 6. as. 

"Full glad of so good end, to them drew nere 
And her lalewd with aemely bel-accoyle" 
(i.e. with Itindly greeting). 

19. by and ty, immtwintely. Cf. St Mark vi. if., "1 will that thou 
give me bji and 1^ in a charter the head of John the Baptist." 

■ I, with, against. Cf Shaks. Twei/l/i Night, m. 4. 148, "I am 

R0 man hath any quarrel to me." 
_3. saving that sammeaihat, Jic=tjnly that they were obliged to 
say something. 

. iB, line 5. Both here and in line 31, Halle adJs to the other 
a "and Sir Richard Hawle." 

1. lyked hitler thim, pleased them belter. Cf. Gascoigne, Steele 
Glai, p. 83, 

"But if my Glasse do Hie my lovely lorde." 
tt, bwltd not, was of no use. Cf. Lyiy's Euphms, p. gs. 
Whether your deserts or my desire have wrought this chaunge, it will 
boote you lytile to know." 

■(}. MTt, use. We have still the verb to inure. Cf- Puttenham, 
'p. SSi Thf Arte of English Poesie, "Md and more excellent examples 
jniay be fained in one day by n good wii, then many ages through man's 
■Inullie Rre able to put in nre" 

SPemfrtit. Pontefraet in Yorkshire. The orthography in the 
ews that the present pronunciation of the name as " Pomfret " is 
^£^4 standing. 

^^S^^^pemarde. Just as we still speak of going uf to London. 
^^^^^Kjt the sorest %tiis!, i.e. in the most painful rr 



P. 19, line 1. visl, know. Cf. Ltnie's Labour's Lost, 1. i. 91, 
"Those that walk and um/ tint what they are." 

a. fright. The original basJfi^Al, but this is probably a misprinl. 

rain-ielga. Cf. 38. 7. Halle prints ■' reign." 

6. ^fl/ycf 0/ H'cilminstir. Commenced at the time of the hniUijlg 
of tbe Abbey by Edwaid the Confessor. The Chamber of St Edwjrf, 
01 the Painted Chamber, was the kernel of the palace, and the roemoij 
of the royal residence still remains in the names "Old Palace Yard" snd 
"New Palace Yard." See Stanley, Mimorials of Westmotster AIMj. 
pp. 13 seqq. 

8. Saiuctuarye. The right of sanctuary at Westminster professed 10 
be founded on chuteis of King Lucius and on the special consecration 
by St Peter. The right of asylum rendered the whole Cathedral preoiict 
a"Caveof Adullam." Its privileges ceased in 1566. For a full accoanl 
of the Sanctuary, see Stanley, ut snpra, pp. 363— 3J0. Halle adds lo 
this sentence "and she and ail her chyldren and compaignie were regcs- 
tred for Sanctaarye persons." 

g. tie abates plaei, i. e. the lodging, or house, belonging to Ihc 
Abbot of Westminster, 

It. iht Lerde Chaumbeflayn, i.e. Lord Hastings, see S. 31. 

archbiskoppt of Yorie. This was Thomas Scott, who was also 
Eumamed Rotherham. He was translated from Lincoln to York and 
held the archbishopric from 1480 to 1501. Halle gives the name "Dr 
Rotherham" and also adds this "his place" was "called Yorke place.' 

13. The his in this line refers to the Lord Chancellor, as does "his 
leste" in line 15. "ZTu master," in 15, means the Lord Chamberlain. 

1 J. forbtare, spare, let alone. Cf. Shaks. 2 Henry IV. iv. 5, 1 10, 
"What! canst thou not forbear me half an hour?" 

16. Utled, forbore. Cf. Sbaks. Luercce, 10, 

"Collatine unwisely did not let 
To praise." 
r^. hard, heard. Cf. Sir Thos. More, Ulo/aa (Pitt Press Series), 
1 1. 7, " Onelye to write playnelie the matter as I hard it spoken." 
34. by and by. See above, p, 17, 1. 19. 

17. vieaponed, armed. Cf. Bp Pilkington, Works, p. 43S, "These 
braggers, like thieves, will set on no man that they see weapotied." 

the greale Sealcvth.ia'k is in the special keeping of the Lord Chancellor. 

31. fardelUs, bundles. Cf. Webbe, Diicaursi of Et^ish PoetrU, 
p. 17, "Infinite y&riffw of printed pamphlets." 

trusses, packages. Cf. Spenser, Shepherd's Calendar, May, L 3 
"All as a poore pedler he did wend 
liearing a tmsse of triHes at his backe." 

P. ■10, line i. iiexte, nearest. Cf. on 12. 21. 

to bringr in the nexte waye= to bring things in by the nearest way. 

drewe to them ihatholpe lo carrye a wrotige i«y^= took part with (sided 
with) those who were helping to carry things in a wrong way. Thoe 

re thieves about who made their harvest out of the general confusiflO- 




e than Ihcy « 

:,Fa!lofPridt, | 


Koile's words hetc are: "and some Carrie 
maunded to another place." 

4. oAniif, low dowa, m !i low position. Cf. Turbemlli 
■■Not him that bears his sails alowe 
Nor him that keeps the shore." 
riska, niches, with which the Hoor was strewn. Cf. Cbau 
Rtmaunt of the Rose, 

"The slalke was as rishe right," 
le. as upright or straight as a reed. 

7. as ihti tookt ilfor, i.e. as she ihnught, imagined it to be. 
9. wtowortht hiiH. H^rM is the imperalive of the Old English 
verb that is akin lo Geina.aiiicrdin='Va become, so this phrase = may 
woe become (or befal) to him. 

17. bikoofe, adKanlage, benefit. Cf. Shidts. 1 Hcary VI. iv. 7. 83, 

"This tongue hath parley'd unto foreign kings 
For your bihoof" 

18. betookt, presented to her, committed to her. Cf. Bp Pilking- ' 
tim, Werks. |>. iq, '■ Kings and princes keep their seal signet and ring J 
mosl surely, cither themselves, or bclake it to some trusty friend to keep. I 

ifi. Jlockiiult, in a Hock. Cf. Chaucer, CUrkts TaU, 1. 86, 
"Oonly that point his peple bar so soorc 
ThiX. Jtoltmeele on a day they 10 hyra wente." 
hamHs, annoar. Cf. Bp Pilkington, R^or*i, p. 131, "GoliaB J 
trusted in his harness and strength, but Darid in God s name overthrew 1 

19. dtineanBure, behaviour, conduct. Cf. Sbaks. Comedy of Errors, 

"Fashion your dcm/anaur to my looks." 
31. by and by. See above, p, 17, I- i^' I" 'lie next line Hnlle 
supplies the word " London " omitted in the tent. 

P. II, Ibe 1. ouermuch ligklitcisc, too great readiness, fickleness. 
Vox atitrmuck sec Chaucer, Tie Court of Lime, 3S5, 
"But still beware of marmueh resort 
For that peraventure spillelh al! thy sport." 

6. evstomaMe, usual. Cf. Sir Thos. More, Woriei, p. 385, " Marke ] 
wel and reniembre that we speke here of lieliefe and faiifi, not of workes 1 
and deedea, lest, after hya cuslnmcMc fashion, letting the beliefe go by, 1 
he Answere us with rayling upon mannes maners, and so Icade the reader >1 
note than a mile from the matter." f 

17. indifftrentdyc, impartially, without distinction, Cf. FenHH- . 
larill ^ Fa%ih, p. 1 19, " Insomuch, that whereas in the time of the | 
■poules it was lawful indifferently lo all bishops (certain of them a! 
Uing themselves together) to conslitute and consecrate other bishopsv, 

*^ "i fnlhers restrained the said power." See also Frayer-Book, 1 

"truly and iiidiffireiUly minister justice." 

t> discord. Ct Sh4 


30. to farrefoorth — Xoa far Torlh. i.e. he begged them nol lo | 
far ill jndging of the maltcr. not to make too suie about it. 

31. yrritin^e, irritnting. 
15. Butt ofjoynl, awry, at cross purposes, in 

ffamltl, I, J. 188, "The time is out of joint." 

i6. in frame, into aider, into proper fashion. Cf. Shaks. Ham 
III. a. jat, "Putyour discourseiWojajjw/niwc." AI50 "nu/g/'^a/) ' 
disDi'dered, is fouad Shaks. Love'i Labour'] Lest, in. igj. 

17. St ftddc, i.e. a pitched bittle, an engagement in the Selq 
battle. Cf. Shaks. i Hm. JV. v. 5. 16, " How goes itiejltm" 

18. f^tl, see above, p. 5, 1. 36. 
P. 31, line 8, demeanf, rule, loana^. Cf. Oiaueer, l/ouse ^ \ 

Fantt, b. 11 . 449, 

"I.0 is it not a great mischaunce 
To let a foole have govemaunce 
Of things that be cannot dtmaitui" 
g. colnurabte, specious, plausible. Colour is still used for firel 
Cf. Boon's ffeary VII. (Pitt Press Series), 191. 13, 77, "They did 
Vex men upon scarce cdmirablt titles. ..nay, contrary to all law and 
i-olour, they tnaintained the King ought to have the half of men's lands 
and lents.' 

IS. /Aw^these. 

to. tatu= to have. There are other forms of crasis in tMs History, 
ns lone, lother, but none where the letter A a absorbed from the latter of 
the two words. 

. tilmoiu, charity, alraessc. The word is still pronounced aamums 

Sii. Sha. Halle spells the name " Shawe." 
I iT. For m'o&/« Halle has " murraye. " 
k 18. Hamesty, Homsey, the small village on the north of London. 
Btlle has " Hamesay Parke." 
■ 35. bare him, behaved. Cf. Shaks. Tempest, I. t. 415, 
W "Some good insttuction give, ^k 

I How I may bear me here." ^^| 

I f. 33, line 3. chose, chosen. Cf. Shaks. y. Cttsar, ij. i. 314, ^^H 
"O, what a time have you chose out to wear a kercliief!" ^^| 
ti. betaken, see sbove, bclooie, p. so, 1. 18. 
II. Halle has "Dr John Russell." This prelate was now made 
Lord Chancellor, and was also Chancellor of the University of Oxford. 
15. rowtnes, places, offices. Cf. Archbp Giindal, RemaiHS, p. 191, 
i-Those men that sue for bishoprics do id that decline ibems"' — 
nmeet for the room." 
I 17. all, although. Cf. Shaks. Fkhard III. IV, ^ 
I "Whose hand soever lanced their lender hearts, 

ectly, gave direction.' 

. -n, line 3. luityan. Hece in its radical sense of froltclian, 
I guariiianskip, wifliOQt Uiat ii3ea of teaching to which m modern times 
I tie word has become almost reslricted. Cf. Shaks. Much Ado, l. i. 1S3, 
"So I commit you to the tuition of God." See also gS. ti, note. 

4. sUtHdfth in, consists in. Cf. I'yljt Eupkua, p. 104, " As you 
I would have me lo sliewc the duetie of a chilile, so ought you to 

shewc the care of a Paieat, for as the one standeth in obedience so the 
other is grounded upon reson." See also the Frayei-Book, "in know- 
ledge of whom standeth our eternal life." 

S- _ vyimdt, food. Cf. Sir Thos. More, Works, p. 6, "He whs con- 
tent with meanc fate at hia tabic ; how be it somewhal yet reteyning of 
the olde plentie in deinlie iiiandc, and silver vessell." For " yll vyonde " 
llalle gives " evill dyete." 

10. attUe canuiniinl, i.e. of station suitable to be companions for 
a prince. 

11. ctmsiileraciiin, i.e. over-minute care, regarding too small a 
matter. I have not found the word so used elsewhere. Halle adds 
sfler " conaderacion " the word " lighte," which makes a good sense, 

" lied. 

report = " to be current." Cf. Shaks. Macb. 

37. tendercth, has a tender regard for. Cf. Shaks. Richard III. 
I. I. 31, 

"In the devotion of a subject's love, 
Tendering the precious safety of my prince." 
ig. cridenee, trust, belief. Cf. Formularici of Faith, p. 98, "That 
they ought and must give no less faith and credence to the same words 
of absohitioD, than they would give unto the very words and voice of 
God bimsdf." 

30. melelye, see above, p. 6, 1. 8. 

31. Halle adds after " Cardynall" " Archebishop of Cannlerbury. " 
33. payne, trouble. We generally use the plural ^i>w in such a 

phrase. But cf. Shake. Merchant, 11. 2. rgj, 

"Pray thee take pain 
To allay with some cold drops of modesty 
Thy skipping spirit." 
P. 15, line 1. wealtkt, see above, p. 6, L 33. 
I 3. a/&r, i.e. next to. Cf. Shaks. Hen. VI. (pt. 3) IV. 6. 16, 

"After God, thou aet'st me free." 

5. ceased, used paKively, meaning "made to cense," "put an end 
*. Cf. Bacon, Advancement af Learning, I. jfi. 33, "He likewise 

\ approached a degree nearer unio Christianity, and became, as Agrip^a 
' said unto S. Paul, half a Christian; holding their religion and Taw in 
[ good opinion, and not only closing (i.e. stopping) persecution, but 

-^-•'- the advancement of Christians." 

!e, perchance, perhaps. Cf. Archbp Grind al, Warts, 


p. 4^9, "In these things prrcase some enlargement; shall be, both to 
set forth het Majesty's doing* justifiably, and his refusal, to obey repre- 

lo. adufrtysanente. See above, p. 8, 1. lg. 
iS. cease. See above, 1. 5. 

38. For " Yorke "' Halle reads " Canlerburys." 
31. daiowre, duty, Fr, devoir. Cf. Chaucer, Knightcs Tuli, 1. ijyS, 
"Tho were the gates sKet ajid cried was lowde. 
Do now youre devoir, yonge knighles proude." 

■t. 16, line 3. ioiirne la the grtale gnidgi, i.e. arouse great ill-will 
g all men. 

bee, been. 
. bulfirani manei- nede, i.e. but whatever need there may be. 
. deusure. See above, p. 15, 1. ji. 

ij, line 8. ai eure diskoniatrt, i.e. as (she desires) our dishonour, 

a. vieallhi. See above, p. 6, 1. 33; p. 35, 1. 1. 

iS. contiRti, i.e. we should all be content. 

93. ethe—e&sj. See above, p. 14, 1. 8. 

34. but got to suppose. In such phrase<i go lo is a sort of 
interjection, in the sense of "come now.'' Cf. Nash, Hera PmUase. 
p. It, "Gcitoo, you are unwise, if you make her not a chief saim in 
your Cnlendar." In the text the sense is "But come, suppose she be 
afraid, &c." 

3j. lelte, hinder. Cf. Shaks. Hamlet, 1. s. Sj, 

"By heaven, I'll make a ghost of him that iels me." 

37. Bughle weefcarc. The sign of the infinitive omitted. Cf. above, 

38. caste, exhibit, shew. The idea seems to be of throwing forth 
so that people may see them. The use is singular. " 

3g. fitle, fetched. Cf. infra, on 39. 10. 
33. III. See above, 1. sj. 

P. 38, line 4- sere, sorely, son myndeth iV^seriously thinks 
it. Cf. Romeo and yulia, i. 4. 19, 

" I am too sore enpierced with his shaft 
To soar with his light feathers." 

5, hue, hindrance. Cf. Bp Pilkington, Works, p, 576, '" 
reprovest marriages that ihey be a let to godlinffis ; but wilt thon know 
that it harts not to have wife and children." See ebove^ 16. sS. 

6. vtaistryc, a grand work, an achievement. Cf. Lever, Sermoni. 
P' 75> "So the people in Englande gathered together, they woulj 
make vtaistciycs, and be notable fellows." 

10. iiiJure = to promise, assure. Cf. Chaucer, DocUr".! 
1 3077, 

" This juge unto this cberi his lale halh lold 

e and made hi 
. He sholde telle it tc 


1 1 . maugryt, in spite of. The a , ^ ,-, 

Fr. maigri. Cf. Bp PilkingCon, Warks, p. loj, " Saul s.nd his fl 
tercrs bajiistied uid pursued poor David, whom bis God of a sheplienl 
made a king ntat^n a.!l his foes." Spelt magry, infra, 311. 11. 

14. ethtr ly&, similar ones. Cf. FormularUi ef Faith, p. xxnL, 
"As concerning the rites and ceremonies of the church. ..the hallowing 
of the font, and elher like exorcisms and benedictions by the ministers 
of Christ's church." Halle reads "other of that sorte." 

34. takiih, Le. holdelh, esteetnctb. Cf. Shaks. Mem. f. Meat. 
III. 1. 17, "We/flfchim tobei thief." 

I this faith." 
Cf.'Shaks, 1 Henry IS': 

Much Ado, 1. 

38. manntquellers, murderer: 
■' Thoa art a honey-seed, a man-q 

33. draiBe iym. We now say, ■■ orsw a man. 

P. ig, line 3. looix me ntrjie. The "me" is theelhic dative, as it is 
called. Cf. Shaks. Olhello, l. i. 49, "Whip r;c such honest knaves." 

5. talker. See above, p. S, I. 9. 

9, ftODo places, i.e. the Sanctuary at Westminster, of which so fre- 
quent mention is made in this History, and the Cathedral Cburch of St 
Paul's. Down to the time of Henry VIII. all churches and church- 
yaids were looked on as sanctuaries. This accounts for the word spt- 
cyallye in the text. 

rt. loayi, weigh. Cf. Sir Thos. More, Utopia, p. 161, 1. 13, 
"Therefore when 1 consider and -may in my mind all thebe commen 
■weallhes, which now a dayes any where do Horish, so God helpe me, 
I can perceave nothing but a certein conspiracy of riche men procu- 
linge their owne commodities under the name and title of the commen 

17. mendemtnl, amendment. Cf. Mirrottrfar Jilagiilrates, p. 355, 
"Zealous hee was, and would have all things mended. 
And by that mendment nothing else he meant. 
But to be king." 

eg. vppon the bolderusse, because of the impunity which they lind 
for wrongdoing, so long as they can lake refuge in a sanctuary. Tiiis 
certainly of safety makes offenders bold. 

13, gBoe vikiitlc shcm. A proverbial expression implying that those 


Cf. aljove, 

17. reue, rive, plunder. Connected 
with reb, and the I-atin 

of fhe way of punishment. Cf. iihaks. iVinler's 
'This being done, let the law go whistle." The 
is supertluous, but somewhat like the ethical case. 


silh. See aho* 


take a fiayTU. See 



I it. 


a Coddis name=m (or of) God' 

Cf. Shads. Rich. II. u. i. 15 
become of Ihis?" 

b. iillt. See above, p. 37, 1. 35. Here=hinder us from, &c. 

11. la-mful liurte, i.e. hurt which by course of law might properly 
come upon hiiu. Cf, line ^o below. 

18. to that rigarde, on that account, in thnt respect, as fat as 
r^acds that. 

II. tuidati, protection, guardianship. There is not necessarily in 
the word anything of the sense of Itacking which in modem times has 
become attached to it Cf 34. 3, above. 

17. nquiriy request. Cf. Archbp Grindal, Remaim:, 
"IIb riquireth her Majesty to pardon him." 

a<). and mason, i.e. and it is reasonable that it should be so. 

nthe. See above, 16. l5. 

30. mahtlh hym Joint rutdt, causeth him to pietcnd that he needs 
This his evil conscience does. 

31. iabt. . In the original it is iaia, but I have not fonnd that form 
of the word as a sin^lar dsewbere, and I incline to think that it is a 
misprint in the old etiilion. Halie has "tiabe." Cf. belovr, 31. 7. 

ami if, corruption of an if. An has the same meaning as if. And 
if, OF an if, is simply a redundant expression. Cf. Shaks. AIVs Will 
That Ends Will, II. r. 74, 

"Yes, but you will my noble grapes, and if 
My royal fox could reach them." 
31. The sense is: If he had come lo the discretion and knowledge 
to asli for sanctuary, if he stood in need of it ; having that discretion he 
would now be right angry with those who keep him there, for he would 
know that he did not need to be there. ^^ 

P. 31, line 3. hsmely, plain-spoken. Cf. Shaks. Romto ath/ J^^M 

liit, 11, 3. S5. ^H 

"Be plain, good son, and homely in thy drift." ^^| 

5, parly. The original has"part"but Halle reads " parly, " i.e. 
the person whose goods have been carried olT, and this has been adopteJ 
in the text. 

la. lyste, wish, desire. Cf. Shaks. Taming of Ihe Shrew, ill. 
1. 167, "Now take them up, quoth he, if any list," 

J5 . saumpU, example. The word sampler is, still used of specimen 
pieces of girls' embroidery and needlework. Cf. Shales. Cymielini, 

L 1. 48. 

"Most praised, most loved, a sample to the youngest." 

19. irste, before. This is the usual sense of the word, thoogh in 
form it is a superlative and should = first. 



j. For wialt Halle reads " wholy." 

7. intffeele. See above, p. n, I, ir. For condescend \n these 
of agree to, cf. Carew, Survey ef Carmvall, fal. 8a, "All parlicB 
willingly ceniUieended hereunto and it hath ever sithence been observed 
accordii^ly." Other examples are in the notes on 58. gj and ;i. ig, 

9. ail bale. The old English was alter best or aUlurbat=\x&\ of 
alL The text seems to be in transition from the old to the modem 

10. assayi, essay, try. Cf. Bp Coverdale, IVorks, " Even si 
eternal God assayeth all manner of ways with us, wbich are well grown 
iuid old in yeaxs, but young and tender in failh." 

11. iterreckavmber. The Star Chamber. This was a room in the 
palace at Westminster. The name 13 probably derived from Hebrew 
.Si«/ar = For in this pls.ce the bonds and business documents 
of the Jews, whom the English kings at times fonnd it convenient to 
protect, were deposited for safety. 

II. incontinent. See above, p. 15, L ^i. 
magry. See above, on p. sS, L ii. 

her monk. The original reads "hU minde" which would make the 
words refer to the Cardinal, who had indeed objected (i6. 1) to any 
attempt to bring the child away without his mother's consent, but as 
allusion has just been made to the queen's determination to keep her 
son with her, it seems belter to make the words refer to her. 

sg, souned, sounded. The iniluence of the French has given to 
■he older language many duplicate forms in which a final d 01 t has 
been dropped. So we have sallied^ saluted, 1 7. : 6, on which see note. 
31. importable, unendorable. C£ Spenser, F, Q. 11. 8. 35, 
"So both attonse him charge oa either syde 
With hideous strokes and imfiortable powre. 
Thai forced him his ground to traverse wide." 

P. 33, lines 1, 3. lone.. .father. See above, on 8. 8, g. 

^. to require her the dtliueryi of him, i.e. to require /(pbi her, &c.... 
Cf. Shaks. Coriolanus, ir, i. 160, "He will repiire tkcm (Le. from 
them) as if he did contemn what he requested should be in them to 

8. demeaned -U^^XsA. The verb is most frequent as a reflexive, 
"to demean oneself." But cf. Spenser, Colin Claues conic Homt 
again, 681, 

"Cause have I none (quoth he) of cancred will 
To quite them ill that me denieamd so well." 

II. outr that=\a addition to that. For an example cf. 45. 11 

II. tmierid, i.e. had in regard, had respect unto, held dear. CH 
Shaks. RoBKB, III. I. 7. 

"Which name I tender as dearly OS my own." 
Ita, ^akestbelhgreiU'welthi, i.e. the great welfare of bolh of whom. Ct 


If dishonour, above, line 1 . 


16. filemtd no slight, ihoughe it stmt lyghte, i.e. esteemed no sliglil 
mailer, though il seem only a light or little thing. Halle has "the lordes 
cstemed not lighte, though it semed lighte," and so '^lordes" has been 
adopted in the present text. 

18. cstraungtr. \x. stranger. The noun seems to be in the ob- 

IECtive case after enJure : i.e. their youth cannot eniiure any stranger, 
iat the sentence is far from clear. Perhaps the simplest way to get a 
sense would be to supply <'j before any tilraungit. For the word 
iitraungtr cS. Nicolls, Thucydides, fol. 78, "And havlnge with them 
souldyaia eitraungtrs, which Pissuthxcs and the Arcadians had sent 

ig. mettty (adj.)=nieet, fit. Sec above, on G. 8. The sentence 
might be constructed thus: "Nor any cslraunger (be) bo roelcly (fit- 
ting) &c." 

30. as either of them fer ether, i.e. as each of them for the other. 
14.. require, used here=ask, and not in the stronger sensi ' 
dimaad. Cf. .10. 17. 

16. (■BiMW(«/iVis = advantage. The best instance of Ihe ose of 
word is in the Bastard Faulcoabridge's speecb in King John, Ii, 
jfii seqq., 

"Since kings break fnith upon Commodity, 
Gain, be my lord, for ! will worship thee,' 
^ai/prytia ■u}hile = taT s. time at all events. 

. Infinitive of "to be," following the Old English form with a 
ationoBoroi. C(. gone = goen sStave, t6. »i. 
the tmder age comydred. We should now say, "consldt 
the tender age." 

aS, sfcciall (adverb) = specially. Cf. Shaks. Sonnets, 53. 
" To make some special instant special blest." 
newly, i.e. lately. Cf. Shaks. Winter's Tale, v. 1. i. 
*'A piece many years in doing and now newly perfom 
I P. 34, line I. ricidiimdiiH. A relapse or falling back 
^ "-. Cf. Bp HaU, St PauCs Combat, "Wo is mee I the swept 
is repossessed with seven devils. This rtcidiimtiaa is desperated 
Halle has "resiluacioQ." 

3. fore/aiorid—taed out beforehand. The word differs nothing- 
sense from the following verb. 

3. firtfmaifd, ie. tired beforehand, for which cf. Shaks. K. yt 
II. 333 (K. John loquitur), 

' ' And let ns in, your king ; whose laboured spirits 
Forauearied in this aclion of swift speed 
Crave harbourage within youi city walls." 

■wtaked, i.e. weakened. Cf. Fabyun, Chronicle, c 333, " 1 _ 

ende the Walshe men were so weked and feebled that a fewe knyghl 
scomfyted of theym a great hoos' " 

n this sel 


. the 


" Instead of one reasonable (Jcahmeal, ihey were now ic3i<x\y satisfiedH 

wilh three, each of [hem too so prodigious in quantity a; '* " '~ 

other time have produced a fever or lurfiil." 

4. fbunden (p. participle) =_/CKni^. Cf. bmtniiett—bimnd. P.B. 
Comat. Sfrvire, " Let us give as ve are most ioundcn continual thanks." 
See below, jfi. 30. 

6. IB order him, i.e. to manage all that is connected with him, so 
as to be the best for his health. 

7. mitre tenderly like to ekeriski him, i.e. likely to cherish hind 
more tenderly. Sentences with inverted order of words are frequent M 
this Histoiy. 

tj. Jto/irf iui(^ = be agreeable to. Cf. above, on 
14. afpaintycur selfe, fi:c. The pronoun is not directly the objec_ 
of the verb, but the sense is, " If you settle that you yourself will tair^l 

ig. to hmie the ckildt bee. An expression niore full than in 
dem English, where the infinitive bee would generally be omitted. 

•H. in Wall!, i.e. at Ludlow Castle. See i]. 8. 

31. miscarieH, i.e. died, Cf. Shaks. a Hen. JV. IV. i. ug, 

" AU that by indictment and by dint of sword have since miseia 
under BoUogbtoke." 

33. ke, i.e. the duke. Though the child's death came by nature, I 
the duke would be suspected of foul play. 

suspicion ar/raude. It is thus in the original, bat I fancy for or w 
should read of. 

33. iuAt™= whereas. CL Shaks. Tivo CenllimtH, ^ 

" And where I thouoht the remnant of mine age should have been 
cherished by her childlike duty, I am now resolved.. .to turn her out." 

P. 35, line I. it is all iliiir iewurs = it is for the honour of all of 

i. I9 suffer him byde. Another instance of the absence of te before J 
an iniinitive. See above, on 1 1. 10. 

5. Jubarde, i.e. Jtofiard. Chaucer, Canon Yeo 
311, writes the noun Jufarlie, which More below (line 9) spellsJ 

after, i.e. like, in the same manner as. Cf. Shaks. Temfest. II. i 
76, "He docs not telk after the wisest." 

9, ■uerely sur. Sur may be^i'iV, but I incline to think that it is= I 
Hire, and thai the phrase ia = in very truth. 

II. letted... /r/ = forbotne... forbear. 

rfBreiM^ prison, harsh confinement (Lat. duriis). Durance ii 
more usual form. 

But uf. Spenser, F. Q. tv. 8. 19, 

"The one right feeble through the evil rate 
Of food, which in her duresse she bad found." 

■:e&i«-= pretext, reason. Cf. Shaks. IVinta'i Tale, iv. 4. 566, 
[What celaar for my visitation shall I hold up before h 


I CBuntinaace, i.e. intimated by a look that he shouJJ 
'leave off that mode of argument. 

n. vpoa the maiitr ixamined, i.e. after the mailer had been ei- 

19. mither was, i.e. there neither was, &c. 

ai. it<it\. The nsual preposition after btlmed is ^ in the older 
English, and by in the more modern. 
55. p^ i.e. off. 

3(, /order, i.e. farther off, more disinclmed. For the form of the 
word cf. ojuratr and murlhir ; burdm and hurtlien. Halle has "more 
further and scrupulous to deliver," &c. 

P. 3^ line 3. mafyct here signifies rather wrongdoing than aiil 
disfosiiigH, The prince, beiug so young, could have done nothing lo 
deserve the confinement in a sanctuary. 
5. Tuhich, i.e. (he fetching of him out. 
8. it<i^ = happen, chance. Cf. Shaks. T^n/ci/, l- 
" Make joorself ready for the mischance of the hour, if it so 
11. //i/i(=condiiioiL Cf. Shaks. Merry Wives, 11. t. 17a, 

"I think myself in better //(^^( for a lender than you.' 
/a Mfuff iwf, i.e. tobe sent out; for one to send him 

16. / trust God as strong, i.e. I trust that God is as strong, &c. 
Halle for "as" reads " is." I have therefore inserted is in the lexL 

17. but. This word, both here and in line lo and 37. 3, serves to 
introduce an opponent's statement in liis own words, to which an 
answer is given in the neict sentence. Thus it = But (as he says)— 

ig. glost. Used at first to signilj some explanatory note or com- 
ment to interpret a word or text of Scripture. It came however soon 
to signify some specious rather than sound explanation. Cf. Udsl. 
SI Luke, cap. 19, " Beware Ihal all your life be voide of all clokyi^ ''^ 
counterfeit ^oije." Also Spenser, F. Q. rV. J. IS. 



To bide his 
14. ill fainttd proctsse dnetvel/i, i. e. his counterfeit proceedings 
tend, at what he is aiming in spite of all his pretences. 

For frocesse='«a.j or order of proceeding cf. Shaks. JHerchant, 
IV. I. »74, 

"Tell her the process of Antonio's end. 
For /iw»arf= counterfeit Shaks. Hc». VIII. v. 3. 71, 
" Your painted gloss discovers, to men that understand yon, wontt 
and weakness." 

For draw^ta tend, to approach, cf. Shaks. Ant. and CUop. I 
, " Let your best love draw to that point which seeks best tt " 

be ye sure. Added ironically=BS of course you c 

iirf/=unless. Cf. 

31. iu!t, i.e. liking. Cf. Chaucer, Cant. Tola, Prol. 192, 
"Of prikyijg and of huntync for the hare 
Whs al lus /(«(." 
F. 37, line \. and= if. Said to be the latter part of nvx, as 
£aid to be taken ^om the farmer syllable of that word. But s 
derive and (often written an) from A.S. Hnnan = io give, as i/'\5 sai 
be from gifan^la give. Cf. for the meaning, Shaks. Twslfih Nighl, 
I. 3- 63. 

"And you love me, let's do it." 
fi. a gay matter. Spoken in irony, as if she would say, "We are 
discussing a merry subject," while all the time she feels how serious an 
affair is iu hand. Halle has " a straunge matter." 

Cf. Wilson, Arte of Legiie, fol. ij, "This may seem to some a 
g^ saying, whereas indeed it is both foolish and wicked." 
II. to, i.e. too. Cf. below, 40. a8, 39, S:c. 
katce, i.e. out of this place. 

n. Halle adds after "fro me" "yf I stale hym not nor owe you 

14. kt Imth nothing by ducenl koldot by knightcs scrviee. Kmghl's 
service is a term used in the description of feudal tenure of land from 
the crown, and implies that the bolder of such land, either by himself 
01 another, served the king in war and was an independent person. 

The queen's words imply that her second son had not even hy 
inheritance from his father any such tenure, and so was not to be 
regarded in any wise as an independent person, but as a ward in chai^ 
of a guardian. 

After "kaightes service" Halle adds "but by socage." 

ti. eure, i.e. care (Lat. euro), Cf. Chaucer, Cmtt. Tales, Pro 
306, " Of stadie tolte he moste eure and hede." 

. 17. viay take bemfyte of it, i.e. may avail himself of its privil^e of 

P. 38, line 3. had the victorye. After the second battle of St 
Albans, fought Feb. 17, 1^61. 

7. rayning, i.e. reigning. 

8. to the kindes enemye. There is evidently somethmg wrong 
. B. Neither Halle nor Hardyng's continualor has this passage 
which, as the sidenote (p. 3J) indicates, comes from Mora's Latin. Wi 
shooid expect something like, "As this place was sometime to hin 
when unborn." 

n. wyll the mother ktfe, i.e. willeth the mother to keep, itc, Cf. 

15. and werii i.e. and who would be. 

16. flath no maH to doe to examine. To rfii = much to do, or 
more common, much ado; so that the sentence means, "No man hath 
much trouble in finding out." 

jp. lesse lande then, &c., i.e. even less land than a kingdom, imply- 
ing that the law would forbid such a thing still more stringently where 
a kingdom wonld be the inheritance. 

.. / can no more. i.e. I can do -no mare. Cf. Shaks. /Tamlel V. 

1, "/ laii na more: ihe King, the King's to blame." Hidle hi 

"I can saie no more." 

. wAen hi may not 

a obtain its sh^ter. 

, farder of, i.e. farther off, i 

^e to it, i. e. nmj he need it, and not bt 1 

CDDsent. Cf. 


e. his position, property and condition. He should be 
inainlaincd in good estate. Cf. Shaks. Merck, ni. i. 139, 
"His letter there wiii shew you his tstatt." 

P. 39, line 1 . litre ■aiilk all= therewith. 

3. sRy/ie vihose would, i.e. any one might shitte (i.e. contHve, 
have recourse to fresh menns) who pleased in this business, for be 
would have no more to do with the matter. For the verb, cf. Shaks. 
Tempest, V. I. 156, "Every man jii// (i.e. contrive) for all the rest." 

8. procure her lanni to ie delytierid, i.e. bring about that her bod 
should be given up. 

ij. for asrituch her semed, &c., i.e. for as much as the Caidiiu 
seemed to her. 

18. all thinge vnredy. A sort of case absolute^ while all ti 
were unready. 

ig. nolAing lesse loktng for, i.e. while she looked for (expecledl 
nothing less, &c. 

ao. fet, p. p. of the verb to fetch. In ihe i6it edition of the 
Authorized Version this form is found (as an imperfect) in many places 
where now fetched ts printed, e.g. 1 Sam. in. 5. Cf. Lyly, Et^kiai, 
P- 93i "Farreyi; and deere bought is good for Ladyes." 

11. it might fortune her fere lo bft false, Le. il might chance that 
her {ear was ifiilse and groundless. For the verb cf. Tyndale, Works, 
p. 41, " Unliellef only damneth and keepeth out the spirit and ptovo- 
keth thcfle3h...asit^r^flf'/to Adam and Eve in Paradise." 

43. -well she ■a-asle, i.e. well she wist, she knew well. Halle has 
" well she wiste." The original here is " will she waste, "' which is clearly 
a misprint. 

34. shold nn/«=must of necessity. 

15. danpte, i.e. deemed. 

etur Aiiif =moreaver, besides. Cf. 3. i; 33. it, 

30. viarely, i.e. warily, carefully. 

31. betake, entrusted, committed, gave in charge. Cf. Fabyl 
Chronicle, cap. 68, "And whenne Conslantyne had all prepared 
his voyage, he belehe the land of Britain unlo the said Octavius." 

of trust— in trust, as a trust. Gave him in charge to them 

P. 40, line 4. either of both, \.K. either of the two qualities, e 
wisdom or truth. 

II. experience. The allusion in this sentence and the neit 
Ihe death of George, Duke of Clarence, whose brothers had been the 
of his 

r, i.e. are. Cf. Latimer, Sermons, p. 13, "Which works fa 
Ives marvellous good." 

has ' 


15. ^m¥/= goods, possessioDs. Cf. iChron. » 
*Ti proper .fiwi/... prepared for Ihe holy house." 
15. if yt cannet ilToihcrt, i.e. if ye cannot (Keep Dim saiej e 

31. BtKS, i.e. once. This word is really the genitive case of 
and aipiifies, far oni tinu. 

. 4:, line 1. ai/asf. Halle adds " as Ihe mother." 
ie say// m tAat oflikiHhod as At tAcugit= therein he spake in 
probnbilitj ai he thought. 

g. tie bishoppes police al Pewits, i.e. the palace of the Bishop of 
London at St Pad's. See Stow's Survey of LandoH [1633], p. 411 b. 
'■ On the north-west side of this [St Paul's] churchyard is the Bishop's 

palace, a Iar|;e thine for receit, wherein divers kings have been lodged 
and a great househ^d hath been kept, as appeareth by 1}ie Cieal Hal' 
which of late years, ^nce the rebatement of Bishops' Livings, hath ni 

been furnished with household meynie and guests as was meant by the 
builders tlieieof, and was of old time used." 

ii. This passage between the asterisks, p. 41 — 43, is represented 
n Halle as follows ; " When the prolectour had both the chyldren in 
bis possession, yea and that they were in a sure place, he then lie 
thirst to se the ende of his enterprise. And to avoyde all susincion, ne 
caused all the locdes, whiche he knewe lo be faithfull to the kjng, to 
assemble at Baynardes Castle to eommcn of the ordre of the coronation 
whyle he and other of his complices and of his aflinilee at Crosbiea 
place contrived the contrary and to make ihe protccloUr kyng." 

13. ojiemd hi7nse^=te\e^ei his intentions. See below, lines ij 
and 17, and cf. Bp Filkinzlon, IVerks, p. 413, "He was aner; with his 
servants and said they had betrayed and opened his counsel.' 
3 r. brntin vnla the lAtie, i.e. disclosed. See above, oi 
31. tieir trrafle maiilers, i.e. the masters of Iheic Craft, the 
most expert at their business. 

P. 41, line 1. ■wAa, i. e. and they, the kinsfolk. 
5. earefiii, full of care, troubled by anything. Cf. Pierce 

"And al they songen o [one] songe, that 

They criedcn al o cry, a careful note." 
I. iieck. a movement of the head as a sign of cc 
Shaks. i^,rn. VI. i. 1.68, 

"They have troops of soldiers at their beck, 

spiallc^ spies. Often written espialles. Cf. Shales. 

, "The prince's spials have informed "" " " "~ "'" 

rthe old editions have espials. 

traines, devices, conlnvoQces. Cf. Ly!y, EupAt 

ftlluiing traines of women's wiles." 

13, ferl&=iomatd, on to the end. Cf. Shaks. Measure for Mc, 
Of, V, I. a.'S, "to hear this matter /!W(A," i.e. to theend. 

58 sisTosy OP ■jtam-.iiMStmD' m 


p. 43, line r. Erhdome of Hertford. This is an error in the oriEinal 
for Hereford. Buckinghitm claimed Ihe earldom of Hereford, because 
descended from Thomas of Woodstock , Duke of Gloucester, who 
married Aleanore, daughter of Hamphry de Bohon, the last Eail ol 
Hereford. Cf. 87. 5, below. 

6. at afioint=[n accord, in agreement. 

'9. etAtr whtn, i.e. into some other direction. For this use ol 
lahere, almost like a noun, cf. Shaks. King Lear, I. i. 3G4, "Thou 
better •where to find." The construction is "turn lbs 
otherwhere from perceiving," &c. 

thick, i.e. in large numbers. Cf. Shiks. Jul. Cos. i. i. 76, 
"I'll about, 
And drive away the vulgar from the streets, 
So do you loo, where you perceive tbem thiik." 
the lord Cardinal!. This was the Archbishop of Canterbury, 

Thomas Bourchier, Cardinal, and Chancellor of Oxford. 
the Bishoppe of Ely. Dr John Morton. See 88. 14. 
adhiiat (Lat. odAiiere) = called, summoned, admitted, 
lOUgh very few persons were invited. 

13. misgiueth. The nominative is, of course, the plural word 
karies, but the singuior expressioo "of a secret instinct of nature" 
coming between has dtawn the verb into the singular- 

14. himsdf=itself, which did not exist in Mote's day, Halle has 
here, " as the south wynde sometyme swelleth, &c." 

17. sonraikat the dealing self, i.e. in some dt^ee the actJDOS 
themselves which were done, &c. For «y=it5elf, cf. mfra, ,155. 4. 

19. close, kept secret. Cf. Shaks. Romeo, i. i. 155, ""To himself 
so secret and so close. " 

far litle and little. We should now soy, "for little by little," 
or, "for by little and little." 

30. Crasbies place in Bishops gales sirete. The place is still marked 
and linown as Crosby Hall. 

31. had Ihe resort, i.e. had all the throng of people resorting to 
visited and courted of all people. Cf. Shaks, Tuio CeMlemen, 

"Of all the fair resort of gentlemen 
That every day with pari 

In thy opinion which is worthiest love 
33. thai had the doing, i.e. who were Ihe persons through whc 
IE done, the executive body. 


lO good_/&r them. 


^^^^^ P, 44, line I. toume them to na good, i.e, tui 

^^^^H 4. which, i.e. the protector. 

^^^^B^ 6. 0/'^r^f, i. e. with a design. We now sny "m purpose," but 

^^■Bf; Shaks. Hen. VIII. v. 1. I4, "This is of purpose laid, by some thai 

^^^^^ale me, to quench mine honour." 

' 8. ^iffe, i.e. iitc^also. 

10. lord Stanly. This was Thomas Stanley, made Lord Stanley 
of Lathom in Lancashire in 1456. After playing a prominent part in 

klhe events preceding the aecessio o of Henry VII. lie was atade Ewl 
Bf Derby in 1485. 



imerall, i.e. wparale. Cf. Eatle's MicTBCBsmBgrafkie, p. 13, , 
" His style is compounded of twenty stvcral mens," Also 1 Kings xv. 
" Aiamh was a leper, and dwelt in a several house." 

Ij, while one man ir then -which it never Ihence, i.e. as toi^ as 
□ne certain man is among Ihem, who never is abseni, &c. 

17. rnwnde amisse ttmrard me^should li»ve any sonnd or meaning 
of mischief' toward me. 

19. by = \a refeience 10, concerning, in respect of. Cf. Gascoigne, , 
Stdl Glm, p. 71, "I spcake not this hy English courliere." 

«. li4fe=Ae3i. beloved. Cf. Shaks. 1 Hen. VI. ril. 1. 164, ■ 
■■ Stirred up my tiefai liege to be mine enemy." 

16. much mil tare. An inverted order for " bore much rule." 

17. Lteeler, i.e. Leicester. The orthography of the teit shews 
that our present pronunciation is the same as thai of More's lime. 
Ualle reads, "in the counties of Lecestre and Northnmpton." 

aj. melyt, i.e. alone. 

yi. brokin ail the liauiKe, i.e. frustrated all the schemes, upset 
all the plans. 

33. /er, i.e. because of. Cf. Shaks. Miiimmmer Night's Dream, 
V. I. ajj, " he dares not come there yiT the candle." 

P. 45, line 1. 7wn« = no. Cf. Shaks. Cymhelint, I. 4. 103, "Your 
Italy omCains mene so accomplished a courtier." 

4. sembtamue, outward show, i.e. they appeared to be friendly 
lowards him, Cf. Shaka. Caatedy of Errors, v. 358, " These two 
])Faiiiio$, one in semblance." 

5. quailed, quelled, overthrown. Cf. Shaks, Animy and Clro- 
fatra, v. 1. 85, " When he meant to quail and win the orb." 

II, oi/oiw/=made trial of. Cf. Shaks. Merry iVivts, II. r. afi, 
" That he dares in this manner assay me." 

14. of very trust, i.e. by reason of his complete trust in him. 

16. modotts here means the movings, promptings, suggestions, 
made to him (Calesby) by Buckingham (see above, Une 8)7^and by 1 
Catesby In be set before Lord Hastings. 

17. minishe his credence, diminish his credit. For miniji=di- 
minisb, cf. Bible, 1551, Exod. v. 8, "And the norahre of bricke 
which they -were wont to make in tyine passed, laye unto their charges 
also, and mynnyshe nothing thereof. 

For credeme cf. Shaks. All's Welt, I. ». 11, "His love and wisdom 
■nay plead for amplest eredenee." 

ig. to ridde him, to remove Iiim out of the way. Cf. Shaks. 
Riih. II. V. 4. It, "I am the King's friend and will rirfhis foe." 

ai. the eniy desin, &c. The sense is : the desire whereof was the | 
t, ftc Cf. Lyly, Eufihiies, p. ;o, " I am brought inti 

"by the I 

," where we should 

Paradise by the only imaginatioi 

say either " hy the imagination only," 

13. ailecliui (Lat. alliceo^to entice} an enticement, Inducemi 
. More, IVorii, p. n, "But among ali thingcs the very deadly 
M is this: to be conversant day and night among them whose 
M only an alleclive to sin, but over thai all set in the expugnation T 


_ .mm 


of virtue." Halle has here, "ihe thycg that enduced him tc 
curer and Ac." 

15. Ilalle gives the date " the thirtene daye of June." 
JQ. lutldlies. These were arrangements of figures lo 
Table decoration, and generally had verses Btlached to them, 
in his CkronUlc(fA. ij 16) gives an account of the "BOlyllies" 
at the coronation banquet of Henry VI. 

"(1) A Sotjltie of Seynt Edwarde and Seynt Lowys armfdffl 
upon cyther his cote aitnour, holdyng atwene them a fygure lyke SDl 
kyng Henry, standyrg also in his cote armour, and a Scnplure passii^ 
from them both sayinge, Beholde ii. parfyght Kynges u ' 
armour: and under the fete of the sayd seyntes wa; 

(5) A Solyltic of an Emperoure and a Kynge arayed in Msntellji 
of Garters, whiche figured Sygysmunde the Emperoure and Henry 
(he V. And a fygure lyke unlo Kynge Henry the VI. knelynge lo- 
fore theym with this balade taklted by hym... 

(3) A Sotyllie of our Lady syttynge with her child in her lappt 
and die holdynge a crowne in her hande. Seynt George and Seynt 1 
Denys on eylher syde presentyd to her Kynge Henryes figure beiyngc | 
in hande this halade as folowelh..." , 

30. t}urfere='Catn for, i.e. for that (1 

33. tuaioning, communing, speaking 

P. 46, line 1. Halle has, "bene a slepcr." 

5. HelbtriK. Ely Place in Holborn still marks the pk 
residence of the Bishops of Ely in London. 

rmuirt, i.e. request, not necessarily in our modem 
raaDding. See j 

: of de- 

a dishful, used of meat and other things. Cf. Gen. 
xliii. 34, "He took and sent nitssit unlo them." 

7. IB al Ihe hast. We generally now omit the article, and say "in 
all haste," but cf. Shuts. Lear, il. i. 16, 

"He's coming hither; now, i' the night, T Ihc Aaile." 
See also below, 48. 31. 

9. se/U Ihe lordafast, eng^ed them busily. 

14. JraHng, i.e. chating. In the sense of rubbing, the word is 
found in Chaucer. Halle has here, " fretyng and gnawyng." The sense 
of " froting" may be gathered from two examples of its use in Trevisa's 
translation of Higden% PalycAraiiicim (Rolls Series). In vol. I. p. 163, 
he says of a language that it is " frotynge and unschape," and Higileo s 
text has " ila stiidet incondita " where the sense is what we now call 
"grating" of sounds. Then, vol IJl. p. JS, he says " they clawcdc 
and froledt the oliphauntes in the forhedes" where the Latin hu 
"scalpo " = to scratch. 

kmamng, i.e. gnawing. 

11). ampasse and ymagine, i.e. bring about and plan. Cf. Sha 
Merry Wwj, III. 3. 111, "The knave braced of that he could O 

- — ■•iffftn. W- 1, a. 19, "When I fiM<(|;«rfltMH 

11. astenicd, i.e. astonished. Cf. Dan. iii. if, 
chadnezzar Ihe king was aslenitd." 

^=coDcemiQg. Cr. 44. ig, acd see betow, line 32, 

13. c/fre, clear, iDnocent. Cf- Shaks. Merry SVive 
" If you know youreelf f/car, I a ' ' '"' " 

38. sorcfres. For he is goii 
by witchcraft. 

30. grtlly aiashed that fan 
sde were greatly downcast. 

31. iater coHltnl. that it jj 
i.e. better satisSed that the charge v 
anybody else, 

P. 47, line I. made of counsiU, i.e. made a portion of the council, 
t»kea into coanael, entrusted with the secret. Cf. Shaks. Othella, 
HI. 3, Jil, "He was 0/ my counsel in my whole course of Wooing." 
See also betow, line 1 7. 

J. ■aiare, i.e. awaie, conscious. Cf. Shoks. Romio, [I. t. 101, 
" T^on ovcrheard'st, ere I was luitre, my true love's passion. " 

8. Skorii wife, i.e. Jane Shore. 

to. doublet, a man's inner garment. Cf. Shaks. Merry Wives. 
III. I. 46, " In your doublet and hose this raw rheumatic day. 

ir. weriik, apparently = ill- shapen, foul, ugly. Cf. Ascham, 
SchoUmaster, Bk i, "A countenance not vieriihe and crabbed, bnt 
faiie and comely." 

II. ai it -was iteuer other =3S it had always been. 

ao. harme, i.e. Ihe injury done to hia person. But Halte and 
Hardyng print arm, which is most probably correct. 

11. worthy. The fidler constmction is ivarthy cf. But cf. Shaks. 
Merry Wives, v. 5. 64, " Worthy the owner and the owner it." 

14. ilallehas "with yf and with and." The and in this sentence 
=if. On this word, cf. 37. 4 note. 

33. lei flee. We now saj let fiy: i.e. let a weapon fly, aimed a 
blow. Halle has, " Jet flye." Sland!iy=S\.3iAey. 

P. 48, line 4. iestinved, placed. Cf. above on 16. n. For the 
fiist part of thLi sentence, Halle gives " Then was the Archebishop of 
Yorke and doctour Morton bishopp of Ely and the lorde Stanley taken 
-nd divers other, which were bestowed in dyvers chambers." 

6. ihryuc Aim, i.e. make his confession. 

o^tuv:! quickly. 

S. at aduenturt, by chance, the first that came to hand. 

15. entred, interred. We have the word saAx. entered la 1. 34. 
j8. -ooided, i.e. avoided. Cf. on 1. 14. (Ao/ = that which. 

II. in al ihe hast. We now say "in all haste." See 46, 7. 
r/7«iiri'Hf= requesting, cf. 46. 5. 

54. nK«f=tore. The word is used by Chaucer, as also the form 


Ihi bore. The boar, being Richard's 1 

to the rhyme, '^■ 


" The Cat, Ihe Rat, and LoveI the dog, 
Rilled all England under the hog." 
The Cat was Calesby, ihe Ral, Ratcliffe. 

cognisaunce=^coa.l of arms, by vduch njailed warriors in old times 
were koowD {fBgnilui). 

After the word cognisaunce, Halle inserts "he yraagined that it 
should be he." 

*8. throughly, i.e. thoroughly. Cf. Matth. iii. Ii, "He will 
throughly parge his Soar." The sense is the same as iUttrly in line u 

31, Ey. We write this interjection j4i/ 

33. Untth, i.e. teaneth^givelh heed to. 

F. 4g, line i. fiatlasieth, i.e. fancieth. The noun fantasy was of 
common use in Elizabethan English, but the verb not so common- 
The p. p. is alone foond In Shaks, King ybhii, iv. 3. I44, "I find the 
people slrangelj/iB/fljKi/." Cf. below, ill. 7, where the word means 
''took a lilting for." 

3. flaini, downright, nothing else but. Cf. Shoks. King ybhn, 11. 
461, "He speaks /ton cannon-fire." 

7. likely. Here the sense of the expression seems to be " a cause 
which would probably make him race us," ora"g;ive him wairant for 
doing so." So the word Mf/}'— well-grounded, adequate. 

race. On this word see 48. 14. 

10. biding, i.e. staying where we are. 

ittdts cost, of necessity. The simple word needs is common now. 

:r. ieuer. More commonly spelt lic/ir= rather, by prefirtnci. 
Cf.Joy, Exposicieun of Vaniel, " I had /jg^r hem to be converted and 
live." The positive Itef and the superlative litfist are found in Shake- 
speare, but not the comparative. Cf. also 6. ig note, where the spelling 
is the same as here. 

13. (0TOii7v/= impending, hanging over, near at Cf. 3. 5. 

15, enitnioase, i.e. the work uf an enemy. Halle has enviaiist, 
which probably is correct. 

a6. a knight. Here Halle adds, "Sir Thomas Haward sonne to 
the Lord Haward (which lord was one of the priveyest of the lord 
protectours counsaill and doyng). " 

38. Halle omits the words " wyth...auclorite." They would be 
somewhat of a contradiction to the words quoted from him in the 
previous note. 

33. brahi his tale, i.e. interrupted his ci 

merely, i.e. merrily. 

P. 50, line 4. tether properly menns "the other" or "that othc 
but so far had this become forgotten in common speech that w ' 
here "that tother." 

6. sene a signe, i.e. observed (to be) a sign. 

7. I shall rather let anye thingepasse me, i.( 
a matter even before anything else. 

10. sane after. Here HaUe adds "as a me 



II. and of Ihtir miling. Wu should now say " iy Ihdr meeting." | 
Cf. Latimer, Jiem. p. 140, ''That the Scripture of Goii may be rend il 
English 0/~all his obedient subjects." 

i8. jtrt ofhimselft, i.e. fear for, on account of, himself. 

91. whiU he v/as thiriu, i.e. in the dimger and jeopardy. 

13. art thou rtmtmbred. To bi ramntbred is an old English 
e>!pre3sion="to recollect." Cf. Shaks. Taming of Shrew, v - -' 
'• it yon it rtimniirei/, I did not bid you maril." 
' ' s, few else, f ' ' ' 



iut nothing hb 
;t, line 4. After the word s 
I (quod Hastynges]. 


'eriy, Halle adds " I praye God it 

(quod he)? Doubtest thou Ihat ? 

I maner displeased he entered inlo 

I lyve, as you have heard." 

-. , ^.. ,, _ , ■'Twas 

riay, nay, I warrauot the : And so 

the Towre, where he was not long _ . 

n. /-ailing, i.e. exceedingly. Cf. Shalts. OthiUo, 
Strange, 'twos jWjjin^ strange." 

17. to set some eohur vpan, i.e. "to give reason 
Cr.SiiHks. Wint. 7'o/«, iv. 4. 566, "What siijurformy 
hold up before him?" See also S3. 19 below. 

18. sembslauncial. Kallehas " substancial. " 

ao. hamesed, &c.=armed in old ill-loolting coats of mail. Halle 
has " evil-favoured briganders." 

30. ntxt to handi, i.e. nearesl, first to hand. 

31. rf;Hi>n/, i.e. requealcd. Cf. 46. 5. 

P.S^.linea, in a/CAf iSuj/, see on 48. 11. Cf. also ji. 17. 

3. htrodt. Halle has "heralde." 

16. stKiitiT proairing, i.e. wrongful conlrivances. 
ai- put vnto. As we say now "fut to death." 

17. in makyng, ie. wMle (or for the purpose of) malting. Cf. 
Sh^s. Car. IV. 6. J31, "cast yonr caps in hooting at Coriolanns' exile." 

99. foUtikely, i.e. in accordance with wise policy. 

33. amousiy, with much care, carefully. Cf. Shales. Much Ado, 
Ti I- rS7) " If I <3o not carve most curiously, say my knife's naught." 

10 vxl a set katide, i.e. in a hand so well written. This inversion of 
the order of words is common with the author. 

P. S3i line i. practsii, used here of a legal document. We still 
call the officer of a law court who serves the writs, "a/rofwi-server." 

a. prepared before. Here Halle has "prepared and studyed be- 
Ibre (and as some men thought by Cateaby)." 

4. ^ra writing, i.e. mere writing ouli cf. i Cor. xv. 37, ^r/ grain 
=x nothing but grain. 

ail had it bene, i.e. although it had but been on paper, i.e. and not 
10 grandly engrossed on parchment. 

i speaking m irony 

spoiled by hurrying." Of course he i 
eellent composition done apparently in so short a fime. 
1 1. by frofecy, i.e. prophetically. 


IheproUclor stnt. Here Halle inserts "Sir Thomas Hawarde."' 
i.e. two or ihree Ihousand marks. 

laidtvnio ha-./ar Ihemancr saMi, i.e. laid against het, accnsed 
her, for appearance iske. 

31. mtl of al flrriy^ without any dress bat her kirtle (i.e. petti- 
coat with a jacliet above). 

33. rud. Halle has red. But for the inlerchange of vowels cf. 

P. 54, line 7. ■Biorshipfully frmdcd. HaUe has "well frended." 
10. propir. Tiiis word is frequently used of the fotm and outward 
appearance oF persons. Cf. Burton, An^amy, p. jjs, "This Cymon 
was a fool, a proper man of person, and the governor of Cyprus son, 
but a very ass." 

17. After " charnd Aoua ;" Halle substitutes for the cemamder of 
the sentence : " and this judgement was in the tyme of KjTig Henry 
the eyght, in the xviii yere of whose reigne she dyed, when she had 
nolhyng but a reveled sicynne and bone." 

18. ryuUdf, i.e. rivelled, shrivelled. Cf. Holland's Plmic, Xlll, 
»:, "The leaves be somewhat longer and thiclier, with long cats or 
lines wrinltled and rivelled throughout." 

ig. whoso vel adiihe, i.e. wh<Bo should well look at. 

33. rede vvl. Reading and writing were not such common accom- 
plbhments in the fifteenth century as they are now. 

P. S5, line 3. ralier £iiy then rich, i.e. gifts which rather made a 
show than were costly. 

15. The sense is; "with all those who in those days had buaness 
which they wished to set forward." 

30. lordes and knightes. Halle gives the names; "the earle 
Ryvers, and the lotde Richarde the queue's sone, Syr Thomas Vaugban 
and Sir Richard Haute." 

P. 56, line 3. secret with him = & sharer of his secrets, a confidant. 

14. to nigh to the qua%e — \.oa near akin to her. 

After this sentence Halle adds: " In so much as Sir Thomas 
Vaugiian, goyng to his death, sayed : I, wo worthe ihera that lolte the 
prophecie that G. should destroy King Edwardes children, meanii^ 
tberby Ihe duke of Clarence, Lord George, which for that suspicion is 
now dead, but now remainelh Richard G, duke of GLaucester, which 
now I se is he that shal and will nccomplishe the prophecie and destroy 
Kyng Edwardes children, and all their alyes and frendes, as it appereth 
by as this day; whom I appele to the high tribunal of Goii for his 
wrongful murther and our true innocencye. And then RatclyHe sayed; 
Vou have well apeled, lay downe youre head. Ye, quod syr Thomas. 
I dye in right; beware you dye not in wrong. And so that good 
knight was beheaded and the other three, and buryed naked in the 
monastery at Poumfrct." 

16. out 0/ the way. This is followed in Halle by : " then the 
protectonr caused it to be proclaymed that the coronadon for divers 
— It and urgent causes should be defeiTed tyll the seconde days of 

vember, for then thought he that whyle men mused, &c." "^^ 


ig. jfr(Hfi/ii=strengtlis, i.e. slrongholds, pkcci 
Ttould detain them about his person so that there could be no chuiice of 
aay gathering in the country to oppose his schemes. 

30. made of counsail. Hfllle has " made a counsail." This coirup- 
lion (« for iif\ is found in such expressions as " now-a-days," " out 3 
doors," &c. Numerous instances are found in Shaks. AWi Will That 
Mnds Well, where it farms a peculiarity of the dialect. 

3r. vfion trust of, i.e. in the hope of... 

3 J. of a proud hart, hy reason of a proud heart. 

33. sholft frame the cite to tktir appetite, i.e. should monld and 
fashion the minds of the citizens to agree with what the protector and 
bis liiends desired. 

P. 57, line I. sfiriltial ntai. The clei^, as distinguished from the 
laity. We still use the word of the Bishops, calling them spiritual peers 
Bs distinguished from Ihe temporal peers. 

4. JbAnSAaa. Halle has " Raffe Shaa." 

5, Penktr. Halle gives the name as " Pynkie." 

frouiHeial. The presld^tit over an ecclesiastical district or province. 

The order of Augustine Friars was introduced into England in the 
lime of Archbisljop Anselm. See Stow's Survey, p. 930, who also 
describes the Church of the Augustine (or Austin) Friars which was in 
the Broad Street Ward. Ibid. p. 185 b. 

10. had a sermon. This is one of many examples which might be 
quoted of how Latin influenced More': language. He is here rendering 
concioittm haiere=to hold a discourse. 

ti. no mans tares. Halle says "no good man's eares." 

r7. _/&rtti^= heeded, cared for. Cf. Shaks. Love'i Labour's Lost. v. 
%. 440, "Your oath once broke, yem farced not to forswear." Other 
examples of this somewhat rare word are Gascojgne's Steel Glas, p. s6, 
"I little >™ (care for) the forces you can use." 

Webbe, Discourse of Engt. Poetry, p. 35, 

"Whether it was Master Sp. or what ra 
Hall, Ifaree not greatly to set down." 

Lyly, EupAua, p. 8t, " I force net (care ni 
so I may have Euphues his ftiendship." 

It is also used impersonally, "it forceth not" = it matters not. 

Cf. Grindal, Remaim, p. 155, " What we have once been, it forceth 
tttt, God respecteth no man's person." 

So Pilkington, Woris, p. 417, " But XhaX forceth not, the liulh must 
be spoken, though some do ^udge." 

31. at S. Mary hosfiytall. Halle e;ives "at Sainct Mary Spittle." 
This hospital was founded by Walter archdeacon of London in 1197 
and was in Bishopgate Ward. Stow (p. 17s b) tells of its snrrendec to 
Henry VIII. and says, "A part of the large church yard pertaining to 
this hospital yet remaineth as of old time, with a pulpit Crosse therein, 
somewhat like to that in Paul's Churchyard." Tliis was no doubt Ihe 
Kene of Penker's sermon. 

" ^4t ir^tlttmaltr. We still say " break the ni 

re Scholar in Pembroke 
It for) Philautus bis fury, 


■I msmsY OF arm} stcmiSWW^^^ 

^V p. jS, line I. dishalilid=^isr\<izlXT\e^. ^^H 

^f 1. by the duke, i.e. in riglit of Elie duke (whose son tbef *^^H 

going tn assert ihat Edward was not). ^^H 

•J. he kited not, i.e. he did not hinder them IVom making sndl^^l 

charge, so Ihat it might further his purpose. ^H 

10. a.f/r7^= obliquely 1 only glanced at- ^^| 
31. in embassiaU=\i\ the capacity of an ambassador. ^^| 
The nobleman here spoken of was Richard Nevill, Earl of WarinC^^| 

knonii for the pari he played in the histoij of this period as " the K3l|^^| 

i,-},. viito Spaine. Halle say^ " to the French King" and in t^^| 
following line instead of " the kinges doughter of Spain^' has "Bot*^^ 
sister to the French quene, then beyng in Fraunce," Which isShaitas- \ 
peare's version of the s'ory. Stx Richard III. Uu 7. 180. The slorY | 
IB told by Grafton as follows. " And now being about 53 years of Bge 
King Edward is advised by his council to take a wife.. .for which no I 
place was thought so convenient to match in as France, nor no lady tot 
all personal qualities and many reasons of state so lit as the Lady Bods, 
daughter to Lewis duke of Savoy, sister to the present queen of France 
and now residing in the French court. To treat of which marriage the 
earl of Warwick is immediately despatched into France, to whose pro- 
posals the French very readily cojirfeKeai But King Ed ward... hunt- 
ing in the meantime in Witchwnad Forest, and coming lo the manor of 
Cirafton, happened to be bewitched with the Lady Elizabeth Grey, the 
young widow of Sir John Grey of Groby, &c." 

to iitlrtait. We now say " to treat for." 

31. kir methir. This was Jacquetla, Duchess of Bedford. She 
was the relict of John, Duke of Bedford, and a daughter of Petet of 
Lniemburg, Earl of St Pauls, Her possessions were afterwards seiied 
by Henry VH. and she lived in a mean estate in the monastery of 
Bermondsey till her death. 

33. t/u lord Wodtfdd. Halle gives the full title " Sir Richard 
Woodvile, lorde Rivers," He succeeded as Baron Rivers in 144^, al\d 
was made Earl Rivers by Edward IV. in 1466. 

P. sg, line 3. Halle gives the full name " Jhon Gray" and in the 
next line says: " at the Jaste battaill of Sainct Albones." Tbe date of 
the battle was T461. 

ro. ittjoinUirc. The phrase is used of such property as ^oin/'/j' was 
held by husband and wife, while both lived, and which was to become 
the property of the widow after her husband's death. 

11. of a mod fauor, a well-favoured, p)[>d-looking person. 

15. afifciritid^cotae to a delerminatian, resolved, agreed, settled, 
cf. Chaucer, Marchaunl's TaU, 9469, 

"He at the last aff dirtied Yam on one 
And let oil other from his herte gon." 

16. ensured her. The more frequent word is "assured." The 
seiise is, plighted himself to her, ond received her pledge in reinm. 
Thus^alTianced her to himself, and obtained her promise la 

l6. standing that. This pa.rticipial constraction is absolute and 
analtached to any prerious woni. The force is much the same as 
"seeing that," but it may be explained = since matteis stand thus, that 
the earl, &c. 

37, i'io^=jonrney. Cf. Chaucer, Prologue, 791, 
"That eche of yow to short with oure weye 
In this viage shal telle tales tweye." 

18. kts appoinlmaites di!iiiiai=h.h anangements treated ns child's 
play and set at nought. 

P. 60, line g. the only ■midovikid. We should now say "the mere 
widowhood," " the widowhood alone." For examples of this use of the 
woid. cf. Mora's Ulofia (Pitt Press Series), p. 144, " For every one of 
ihem, whatsoever be (akelh for the chief God, thinkelh it to be tbe 
Teiy same nature, lo whose only divine might the soveraintie of al 
thinges is altribnted.'' See also Ascham, JTc^/fmui'fr, p. 41, "Boldnes 
to sske doubtes aod wil to win praise be wonne and maialened by the 
cnelie wisdome and discretion of the scholeniaster." So Spenser, F. Q. 

"The Biiely breath him daunts who bath escaped the stroke;" 
and the ZycM/w Cofr«j)(inrfi«fif, p. 13J, "TbewM/f transporlatyon will 
cost a thousand pound. 

14, apprache friathsde in itma. It was forbidden to priests to 
ntariy a widow by a decree of the council of Lyons in 1274. 

>5- ii^i^yi hera=maTrying with a widow. Cf. Shaks. RUhard 
III. III. 7, 189, where the word is used ot this same marriage. 

10. at a poinit^Iiitty determined, come to a fixed point. Cf 43. 6 

F. 61, line 1. iapfi/fye, i.e. haply, perhaps. 

ir. my casa'n of Warwik. " Cousin" is a title frequently given 
by princes to other princes and disLinguIshed noblemen, without the 
existence of any blood relationship between them. Thus in Shaks. 
Measure fir Measure, v. i. 165, the Duke of Vienna says to Lord 
Angela " Come, couiiti Angela," 

rs. gardaiH, see 37. 15. 

18. es/rauiigt, i.e. strange. For other examples of this influence of 
French on English forms, cf. escape with scape; escalade with st<ile; 
afetial with special; so espousals, espy, esquire, eslablish, estate, eslray 
have each tlieir shorter form. 

41. let Ike iisAofi hardtly lay it in my woi, "Hardely" here 
seenu to mean "harshly," "unfavourably," and so the sense of ihe 
doase is " let the bishop lay it in my way as an objection." 

33. firhidden aprieste, see note on 60. t4. 

ti. to GodwanU, i.e. toward God. Cf. a Cor. iiu 4; 1 TTiess. i, 8. 

33. sun, i.e. Bsaured, affianced to. Cf. Shaks. As You Like It, 
V. 4. Ill, "You and you arc stire together, as the winter to foul 

, P. 6*, line 8. comfort. In the sense of L«t. ,yWVMattrong.; b 

' — ~-" 1, strengthening. 



ensured. Halle has here "assured." See above on 55. 16. 

i+. After "impediment" Halle continues ; " he shortely afier 3I 
Giafton, beside Stony Stratforde, maried the ladj Elizabeth (itejr verie 
privel;...aiid bee Talher was created Erie Rivets, and her soone created 
Marques Dorset." 

ao. A<^^/c = angrily. Cf. Shaks, Antony and Cleopatra, tv. 15.43, 
" Let me rail so highly." 

afi. in sanctuary. See the queen's answer, above, pp. 37, 38. 

31. titach v/Aal=toi the most part, cf. 6. ii, above. 

II. //y'A^= condition. Not with the bad s( 
lally attaches Co the word. 

15. ItNght, for length. This orthography seen 
Cf. slrenghti! for strengths, 56. ig. above. 

16. iuiUeil his ce/iiur=set up his pretext, 
ig. The sense of the sentence is: That ii 

them who were satisfied if they only had some 

were sure not to be asked to give more proof than fhcmselves chose 

P. 64, line I. tyme, i.e. the text pf his sermon. The woid Ii 
probably a cotmplion of theme. 

The text is from the Book of Wisdom, iv. 3. For ageiil ir 
Halle reads dabunt. 

8. haste, i.e. bastardy, pronounced "basety." 

Q. and the troufk hid fro knovilege, i.e. and by the truth t 
hidden from men's knowledge. 

18. seerti in She heushold, i.e. in the secrets of the family. 

30. faunurs, i.e. looks, faces, features, cf. 65. i. The first v 
of this clau5e=as being persons who by their looks, &c. 

31. fi-om whose verlJiinis cmidkiens, &c., i.e. from whose ( 
duke of York's] excellent qualities King Edward was far off. 

P. 6;, line 4. frent, i. e. print, see below, line 30. 

5- exprcsie liktnes. The word is from the Latin exfiees!U!=poT- 
tmyed, moulded, modelled : so the sense is a likeness enaclly modelled 
after another. Cf. Hebrews i. 3, "the express image of His person." 
Also Lyly, Euphues, p. 48, " Another I, in all places the express image 
of myne owne person. ' And p. 71, " He Created a woman the express 


force. The sense is fully given by "to the sen 

melins with, i.e. happening at the same 

moment with (his p 

^^ NOTES. f S5 " 

17. jtMJirf appears to have the signification of " foundered," "stuck 
fast, " stopped. I can find no other instance of the word. 

16. piUrone. In d^. 33 it yias falirm which is probably the correct 

P. 66, line 3. in Iht vpper story. In the pictures of the Cro5s it 
St Paul's (of which there are three in the Pepysian Library of Magdn- 
lene College, Cambridge) there ia shewn an inner circle of auditors 
who stand on an elevated platform near the preacher and round the 
pulpit, while the rest of the audience are placed farther off and on the 
level of the ground. This platform must be thi upper storey. In one 
of the pictures a new arrival is coming on to the platform, and it seems 
that as he gained the entrance to it, he would be visible to the whole 
audience. Hence the arrangement of which More's text tells us. 

8. We hear in dialects still "tcep" as the past tense of " to keep." 
And this History is full of colloquial English. 

15. TciDtsday fahrmng this sermon. Here Halle inserts "beyug Ihe 
xvi!. day of June.'' In 1483 Tuesday fell on the i6th of June. See 
De Morgan, Book 0/ Almanacs. 

17. Tbe sense of the last clause is : perhaps more than knew what 
the message was which Ihey were bringing (to tbe people). 

ig. hustings. Halle writes the word " hoyslynges." As an ex- 
planation ot Austingi Spelman says, "It is tbe most ancient and high 
court of the celebrated city of London;" and Fuller, in his fVarlhies, 
under London, gives the same. 

95. this maner of wyst. An uncommon form, and meaning no 
more than " this manner." 

aS. to brtake vntoyou=lo declare unto you. Cf. above, 57. 94. 

P. 67, line 1. gBed, i.e. goodii, possessions, cf. 40. ig. 

7. ewr more, i.e. always, at all limes. Cf. Shaks. MhcA Ado, II. 
t. II, "like my lady's eldest son, evermore tattling." 

9. grennes. Hall writes " gynnes." Both words are in use. Gin 
=a snare, is found several times in the O. T. (Job xviii. g ; Ps. cxl. 5 ; 
Is. viii 14). But in some of these places the i6ii edition had grin 01 
greniu w&ch is an Anglo-Saxon word, while gin is derived from 
iitgenium, being the last syllable of the modem engine. For examples 
of grenne or grin (whicb is much the older word in our language) 
cf. Saion Psalms cxL 11, "geheald me wij) thare gryne," hold me 
(preserve me) against their snare. Also Vicar's Vii^il {Atn. IV, 131): 

"Vuung gallants nimbly flock about tbe gales 
And in their hands boarspears with iron plates, 
Their nets gins, griits, troops of Massylian sparks. 
Kennels of senting hounds with loud-mouth'd barks." 
Also Geneva Bible Ps. cxli. 9, "Keepe me from the snare which they 
have layd for me, and from the grennis of the workers of ioiquity. 
Then in the earlier langu^e of the Ancren Rivde we find "deofles 
jronen" for "the devil's snares." And in the later language oF 
Cotgrave's Dictionary (1611) is given, "Laqs, a snare, ginne Xix grinnt. 
Laqscouranl, a noose, jr/n«f or snitle." J 

nrSTOsY OF king richard rtf 

10. fiilliii/; and poUins, i.e. plundering and robbing. T 
words ore not unfrequenliy connected by old wrilers. Cf. Nan. 
FrapntHta. Kegalia, p. 1^, " His estate conliscate and that for A 
and polling." So too Dodsley, Confiicf of ConscUfKe, VI. 49 (Ai 
loquitur), "Every man did descry ray pilling and polling." 

16. /luAa/ «««= squandered. The idea if '" '"" ' 

things where all is let go at random, 

fifttnts. The tni so named because it was the liflcenlh part ot 
all the personal properly of a subject, cf. Shuts. Henry VI. (pt. II-), 
1- <■ 133' 
"A proper jest.. .that Suffolk should demand a whole J^«ilri." 

Fiftenes were not a modern invention, for Fabyan's ChfVHhlc under 
the reign of Henry IH. tells "In this xv yere the Kynge had graunted 
tylt hym a quindecym or fiftcnt of the Temporaltie and a dyme (i. e. 1 
tenth) and an halfe of the Sfuritualtie to recover Ms laades lost in 

t8. htHtuolaici. A name applied to the forced loans in the reign of 
Edward IV. 

14. kmosed, i.e. hauled up, dragged, and so increa.'^ed. Halte has 
"haunsed" Le. enhanced, with the same sense. 

awi;rMjKini'H= penalties that were inflicted on the body by puuish- 
raent or incarceration. Such penalties the king is represented as Com- 
muting into fines that he might raise money thereby. 

15. misprision. This word, which literally means mislaki, error, 
acquired a technical sense in law, and was used to signify csnltmpl of 
the court, or of a sentence. 

iq. cruelly liehedded. Halle here adds: "(This Burdet was a 
marchaunt dwelling in Chepesyde at the signe of the Cioune, which now 
is the signe of the Jiuwer at luse, over against Soper Lane^ This man 
tnerely ( = merrily) in the rulllyng tyme of King Edward the IIII Ms 
rage <?relgne) saied to his awne sone that he woiud make him inheritor 
of the croune, meaning Ms awne house ; but these wards kyng Edward 
made to be mysconatrued and interpreted that Burdet meante the 
croune of the realme : wherfore within lesse space then iiii hourea he 
was apprehended judged drawen and quartered in Chepesyde.)" 

31. Markam. Sir John Markhain waii Chief Justice of the King') 
Bench from \^'5i {May 13) till 1469 (Jan. 13). 

33. then. This word depends upon no la which has just preceded, 
but from the word honour which is expressed, we must supply disgraa 
or some such word after then. So that the sense would l>e "Wiui no 
less honour to Markham, than disgrace to the dishonesty, &c." 

question, cf. SI 
iutbs be cold?" ^sa Hamld, 
thing appeared again ? " 

Coke. Halle gives the name Syr Thoi 
Chronicle tells us that Thomas Cooke was 
a knight of the Bath in 1464, but undei 
" [of Margaret the kyng's sister 


._ ^ .— 0-. -- the Towre and 

his goods seased by the Lord Rjrverae, than [reasourer of Engl&nd, and 
hys wyf put oute of hys howse and commytted to the chaise of the 
mayer in whose place she lay a season after. And aflci Ihe sayd Syr 
Thomas had lyen a tyme in y" Towre he was brought unto the Guyldhal, 
and there aieyEned of the sayde treason and quyt by sondry cnquesles 
and after that cotninytled unto the Countour in Bradslrete and from 
ihens to the Kynges benche in Southwarke, where he lay within the ' 
lyd pryson tyll hia frendes agreed wyth Syr Johan Bnuidon, than kepai 
if y" sayd pryson, to take hym home to hys place where to hys great 
charge he remayned as prysoner longe after. In whych tyme and season 
he Lost moch ^d, for bothe hys places in the coantre and also in 
jjondon were under the gydynge of the sayd Jordes Ryvera serranntes, 
and of the servanntes of Syr Johon Fo^e, than under ti 
whych spoyleti and dystroyed moche thynge and over that 
jewelles and plate wyth great substaunce of the nmrchaund; 
sylkcs and clothes of aras were dyscovered by suche persones 
haddc betaken the sayd goodes to kepe, and came to the ireas 
handes, which to the sayd Syr Thonsos was a. greate enemye." 

Al last the history tells that on poying to the Kin^ h fine of .^8000, 
nd loa marks on each thousand pounds as an additional fine to the 
qneen, he was released after "many good gyftes that he gave unto her 

" " . ^rtuid, i.e. ^gravaled, made into mighty grievances. 

for a prdext af trison, Le. as a ground on which to accuse him 
of treason. 

aquaintaunce. Apparently from the Ft. liger, lighl, 
lacon, Charge against Dudley, "It is weakness and dis- 
man's self to put a man's life upon snch ledgier per- 
fonnaoces. " 

16. /a/ al 
Macbeth, 111. 1. 

31. ■aihiU about. We more frequently say now "vihat niilh this 
ind viial viith that." Cf. Shaks. Measure pr Measure, 1. ■>. 83, 
" ffaWtof/Alhe war, mifl/a/iVA the sweat, if.ifl/KKV-i the gallows, and 
mkcU ViUh poverty, I am custom-shrunk." 

garland. For Lhe Use of Ihis word=viclory, and Ihe emblem of 
victory, cf. Shaks. Cur. I. g. 60, *' Marcius wears this war's garland" 
So Antony iv. 15. 64, " Withered is the jWdWof the war." 

P. 69, line 10. dhflesure. An offence given, not as now generally, 
n offence taken. Cf. Bp Pilkington, IVoris, p. ^53, "This is the 
immon practice of the world, that when a' man is down, then even 
those which were his feigned friends afore, will be the first Iliat shall 
<«ri(him displeasure." 
^^^^Kthe original there is a nut which seems superfluous before out 0/ 


171 BISTORY OF Jtri^ RTCffARD ffP. 

ptrylaX. the end of this sentence. It has therefore been omitted 

II. The allusion is to King Edward's murder of his bcolhei 

iS. proctetirt, i, e. procurator, attorney, deputy. Cf. Shaki. Hat. 
VI. (pt j) I. I. 3, "I had in charge as jlmfHrafor to yout excellence," 
and Halle, Ruh. HI. anno 3, speaks of "afEances made and uken b^ 
prvttors and deputies on bolh parties." 

It. The sense is "And allhouEh it was so that the rcalni was in 
eveiv part annoyed with this and other intoleiable actions, ret, &c." 
Cf. J,. J,. 

31. rtnoumed. Fr, ritJMJBin/= renowned. These forms from the 
French were common in More's day. Cf, Utopia, 166, 36, "the very 
famous and rmoamal tiavailer Ulysses." 

]'. 70, line 1. lohiche youn kyiidt myades, &c. The sense of the 
whole clause appears to be this: "Which kindly feelings of youis. 
exhibiled towards the house of York, since he (Edward) has by no 
means worthily requited, there is one of that house who now by God's 
grace shall do so better, &c." 

3, acquiled. Halle rends "requited," which is the sense. 

7. hull Ikal can hitler till it. He alludes to Doctor Shaw and his 

%\. gmundly, i.e. "to the very ground, to ihe very bottom." " He 
made it all clear," cf. Tyndall, IVorAs, p. 33, " The more grmitdly it 
is scarchedi the precioser Ihynges are found in it." 

13. Uning his very ■wife—Ma true wife slill living. So Shaks, 
Roma HI. I. IIS, "This gentleman, my ■sery friend." 

16. vnmttth. Cf. 13. ^. 

30. thai. In Ihe text this word is the demonstrative pronoun. 
Anolher that (a conjunction) would be supplied after siau to make Ihe 
sentence full. Bo the seose = It may well appear that that marriage 
was not well made, &c. 

31. accBufling. A participial noun=marriage. The verb is fonnd 
in Bacon's Henry VII. (Pitt Press Series), p. 78, "King Charles a' 
a solemn ambassage, ascmtfling it with an article ij ■' 
u request." 

P. 71, line 3. btaringe. This word refers to the protector, j 
is equal to "vihobcari." 

to. deuolal!, i.e. devolved, descended unto. Cf. Fox, Maari^ .. 
p. 339. " The Government was dnioluled and brought into the piiestcs 

iS. abmisns, i.e. abuses, nearly always accompanied with the 
notion of deception. Cf. Spenser, F. Q. II. 11. 11, "Foolish delists 
and fond abusiims." So in Dodsley, Lusty yiiventus, II. [1. 89, where 
God is addressed, " Alas his life is to Thy Word's abuiioH.'' 

19, ham rani/iscendeii —have agreed. Cf. Fabyan, Chrcn. an. 1361. 
"It V ...... 


17- The sense is; "to him that shall so well fill the office, as 
am bold to say he will do, if be accept it," or awJ before occupy may be 
B misprint in the orij^nal for wil. 

•r.i T[,j common orthography is Vtr. The 

jv, i.e. of such a sober age. 

nd so means properly, fixed, firm, stable. 

" A good builder will not build on ihe 

So 73. 10, "asaddt man" = astedfast 

p. part, of the verb '■ 
Cf. Rltington, Wort 
sand, but dig to the 11 


le ^H 

P. 73, line 3. TOWirinp= whispering. The ward is tety fri 
Rpelt "ronnding." Cf. Lyly, Eupkues. p. 71, "Ferardo, roundi, 
autas in the eare. desired hym to accompanye hym." 

4. eomm. Here Halle has "common." The meaning is " 

9. Halle gives the n 
» 7». 1. 


Fitrwilliam." On saddt. 

1. iolh was, Le. was lath, was unwilling. 
14. Made a repetition to the commons of that whichi &c. 

17. The sentence is not very cleat, but "nothing" seems = in 
nothing. So the sense would be: "But in nothing did all this malce 
luiy change in the people." The double negative is not uncommon in Ibe 
English of this time. Literally the words would run : " In nothing it 
made no change." Or the words may be taken as two clauses standing 
absolutely thus : " But all this effecting nothing, no change ^fi'n^made ' 
in ihe people. " ' 

18. alway ojler otu, i, e. never changing or varying. Cf. Chaucer, 
Proline, 341, 

" Hb brede, his ale, was always after arte," 

e way or another. 

P, 74, line 1. disli*che, i.e. distinct. Halle hos "ijose." 

3. iusAfmmi=i party lying in ambush. Cf. Gohlyng, yusline, 
foL 6, "Environing him with a bashmtHt of soldiers layd before in the 
mountains for Ihe same purpose." 

and Nashe/rldes. Halte gives "and one Nasbfield," which is no 
doubt Ihe right reading. The man was some nolorious persoo among 
the protector's retainers, whose name was known far and wide. In 
Hardyng (oo it stands "and one Nashfielde." 

For /!'n5i«i-=belonging cf. Shaks. AWi fVell, iv. 1. 41, "It is an 
hooour longing to our house": also Taming of Shrevi, IV. 4, 7, " Such 
aoalerity as lotgetk to a father." 

T, gyut, i.e. would allow of. 

*"' back Iheyr htddcs, i.e. turned their heads round and looked 

msTOJffT OP sr/m? rtchard ni ' 

„ semUauna, i.e. aspect, look. Cf. Shalts. ffom«, L i- 76,"ri;; 
ff these frowns, nn ill-iieseeming scnthlanu for a feasl." 
19, assembling tkemsclvu togtther. Halle adds "at Paules." 
30. Baynardis castlU. This foitress stood near Ihe bank of 
the Thames on Ihe north side of the river and ^ve name to one tf 
the cily Wards. It was burnt down in 1418, aflerwards rebuilt b^ 
_ Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, and at the lime of this histoiy it wii 
Ti the hands of Richard, Duke of Gloucester. The building of Baynard'i 
^le has been long ago pulied down, and its place is now occupied by 
Cober yaj-ds, wbaiis and private buildings. See Maitland's 3iil. if 
'-■■ ' I, pp. 878,879. 
3i. aproiiitmtnli is 
clerical ei 

V. 75, line 5. madi difficttltie, i e. made a demur, opposed 

la furpiisc=io propose, and so below in lines 53 and 31. 

andg'! not=-arA gat not. Cf. above, 6. I4. 

mier (hem. Here Halle inserts " with a bidiop on every hisnile 

IS though. 

P. 76, line 1. /arriiw = permission, as in the common phrase "I 
'g your /ari/iin," which really means "Task your permission." See 

in thai thal=m as much that. This double thai is not unlike 
Ihe style of the time and the book. CF. above, ?. 13. 

13. vnder hys obrysaunct, i.e. in obedience to him. Thus the ex- 
pression = under his rule, though sbeysaunc, 
ruler, not the rale which he esercises. 
"^ " That although it were so that, Slc. 
thai so iniuhe, i. e. that he so much. 
More pain than pleasure for him who would u 
as unless a man would use it lie was not worthy to 
P. J7, line 5. dciitr. Fr. dcmir= duty. 
8. .Such persons as before were the occasion of ihe contrary d 
of the bad state of the realm) and who again anew intended »' 
_ II. rouned, d. 73. 3. 

I&al. Here it seems to bo the demonstrativi 
1 to the protector lAat (conclusion) for a final one 
apfointed, cf. 59. 15. 

Both because they had now proceeded so far that there w 
safely in going back, as well as because they thought it to be fon 
general welfare to lake these steps were it even so that they had □ 

e. A fixed inflexible a 

S7. of likdykoede—ra all probability, cf. 41. 7. 

n llie Hoiili 

P. 7S, line 7< Which of all the titles that might be we considei la 
be tbe most valid. 

1 5. tslahlishcd is in the original here but is clearly en error for 
"establish," which is given in the text. 

16. And we ask of God to live no loneer tfian while we attend to 
the securing of its (the realm's) odvancemenl. 

SI. at his fanlasye gaue hym, i.e. as his fancy suggested to him. 

30. far Iht manner sait=hy reason of the way 01 proceeding. 

not bu a-kitinsen — mA seem cognizant, seem to be ignorant ol. For 
the wordi which is not usual, cf. ^alie. Olhelle ill. 3. 310, where lago 
having obtained from Emilia the handkerchief says to hec: "Be not 
acknmvn bh'I. I have use for it," meaning "Don't let it be known 
■what has lieconie of it. Keep it a secieu Cf. also Chaucer, Couri 
t/Lovi, II 99, 

"Eek Shamefnstnes was there, as I took hede. 

That blu5hed red, and durst nol bm aknow 

She lover was, for thereof had she drede," 

Lc she durst not admit to herself or seem aware that she was in love. 

31. bulla. The writs from the Fapal Court which secure his 

33. and thought =.t.ven though. The anrf here is the word some- 
mes written an, and mostly = i/^. Sometimes we find the double form 
« i/ot and //"exactly equivalent to if. Cf. Shaks. Timptst, 11. 1. uo, 
"These be 6ne thiop, a« i/they be not sprites." 
But this same word an sometimes = /<i0»j-i. See Sh&lts. 1 Hen, VI. 
7. til, "He shall die, an it be but for pleading so well for his life," 
and More's teit here gives an instance ai and (or an) /AoU£v4 = though. 

P. 79. 1!"' 

saaler (Lat. j 

e should 

(/i'r) = a shoemaker, 
e of &?i = lo know. " 
o little as to shew at an untimely moment, &c."' 

In the plays the Sultan was always attended by 
executioners and agents for punishing wrongdoers. For the word 
cf. Bacon's Ben. VII. (Pitt Press Series), 114. 5, "two butchers or 

9. and ■worthy. An elliptical expression = ' ' and he is worthy of 
bdng so treated," " and serve him right." 

P. 80, line 6. Ike sainluary by, i.e. close by. near at hand. For 
the protector was in Westminster Hall. Sec 79. 18. 
9. a vanilye = a. mere empty parade and show. 
13. Halle says the "nineteenth day of June," and states that the 
coronation took place "on the 6th day of July." Also after line l 
there is introduced, in Halle, an account of the coronation. 

31. the ieile death. More speaks of it thus because it was the best 
thing for the nation to be rid of this king. ' 

iG. m/arluHt=^aii£{onxiae, Cf. Chapman, Homer, bk. ) 
"Jove dolh decree 
Fortunes, infbrlunes lo the morlal race." 

ag. Pc'ken Werbaki. Perkin Warbeck pretended to be Richard, 
Doke of York, the brother of Edward V. For hia whole histisr 
ef. Bacon, Htnry VII. (Pitt Press Series), pp. 140 seqq., with the nt' ' 

33. SB courrlly demtanid, i.e. conducted in such an undethi) 
manner. For demian in this aclivc sense, cf- 11. 8. 

P. 81, line 3. Because of the common habit of secret 

hand dealing people held it in their hearts always in suspicion, ^ 
as a multitude of goad imitations make real jewels doubled of. 

18. vrkick hi btfere had inlcHdid, i.e. to make bimself king. 

19. kis mitide gaut him, i.e. suggested to him. Cf. Shaks. GwW. 
IV. 5. IB7, "My mind ffive me his clothes made a false report of 

33. ^iW^^ natural. Cf. "kindly fruits of the earth," Pr. Bk., 
Litany. ITie sense is : This act would make him a king of a propo 
kind, a king such as he ought to be. 

17. cndmce. We say now "credentials," "tokens of trust and 
■which can be trasted to." 

30. itneling bffore our Lady, i.e. Grene fonnd him at his prayers 
before an image of the Virgin. 

31. to d)ie thtrforiy i.e. to have to die himself for so doing. 
33. yitin his -way, i.e. still on his road to Gloucester. 
P. 8a, line 4. ^tnt, i.e. weened, thought, considered. 
6. on your pay I el without. Halle gives "in the palct chambre 

without," alluding 10 the antechamber where was a small bed for a body- 

9. meaning Ihis by sir yames Tyrrell, "by" here = conceming. Cf, 
I Cor. iv. 4, "I know nothing by myself," i.e. no wrong concerning 

14. sore longed vpwardc, i.e. very much desired to rise, was very 

18. nam^^ = especially ; as in many other places of this history. 
to. by secrete driftes, i.e. by underhand contrivances, Cf. Dodsley, 

Old Couple, XII. p. 53, "if my brain fall not, I have found out all your 

31. Wherefore when this occasion offered, out of very special 
friendship he embraced the opportunity, &c. 

;. reserved, shy of undertaking anylhJnE. 

' But trust me, gentleman. III prov< 
Than those that have more cunnin| 
I should have been more strange, . 
But that thou overheiud'st, qre I n 
.•_ ._... i-yg>5 passion." 

e strange, • ^^^| 
confess, ^^H 

;. put himself in the position of king, 

lo. tfiit himsdf B! king, i, 
leeacded himiveiras king. 

10. nml S!c thim sure. Halle lias "and iiij. other to see them 
sore," cf. below, line a6. 

90. poinlts, laces used in faslening the clothes. Cf. Shaks. Hen. 
IV. (pt. 1) II. 4. 13S, "Their peinls being broken, down fell Ibeir 

11. roughl, the past tense olreck, to heed, to care for. 

1^. fiished. Halle has " fleshe bred." The first idea is of a brute ' 
fed with flesii and made fierce, and satiated. Then of some one fed 
with flesli for the first time, and sa^iniliated. Cf. Shaks. Hen. IV. 
(pt. i) V. 4, 133, " full bravely hast ^cxfiuhed thy maiden sword." 

31. «/)<= innocent, harmless. !q later English it was written 
"ally." Cf. Shaks. Hen. VI. (pt. 3) II. £. 43, "Shepherds looking 
on tneii silly sheep." 

P. 84, line 3. smarid, smothered, choked to death. The primary 
sense is "10 stifle by smoke," cS.Promfl. Hini. p. 461, '•smore, with 
•statikCtfitmigB." So Sylvester's Du Boitas, 

''Some undertnines, som other undertook 
To lire the gates or imore the towne with smoke." 
Also Do Bartas, History of Judith, p. 377, 

" Some dying vomit blood, and some were sawred." 
19. t)inge. Halle adds here, " For he would lecoiupense a de- 
testable murther with a solemyne obseqny." 

II. iy the occasion of his dtatitt, i.e. by reason of his death. 

^3. light. Halle inserts here, '■ For some saye that Kynge Richard 

caused Ihc priest to take them np and close them in lead, and to put 

them in > co^me full of holes at the endes, with ij. hokes of yron, and 

to cast them itito a place called the Blacke deepes at the Thames 

mouth so that they should never rise up noi be sene agayn." 

P. 8s, line 3. Which Ihinges en euery fart uic! pondered, i.e. And 
men will well ponder on these things in every part (they will see that) 
God never gave. &c. 

9. Sainct Martens, Halle adds "1e graunde." 

10. Digklon. For this sentence Halle has, "John Dighton lyved 
It Caleys longe after, no less disdayned and hated then poincted at and 

there dyed in great misery. " 

14. haryed. The verb "harry" is much more frequently used of 
the ravapng of a country, or chasing an enemy. Cf, North's Pliiiarch, 
p. 44'' 

"The Armenians continually harried them [the Parthians] out of 
their skins." 

But here it is used of the rough conveyance of the dead body. 

17. of tht tnisehiefe that he dyd. The sentence is clearly imperfect. 
Halle continues it thus: " in three monethes be not comparable," i.e. 
lhei« is no comparison between the mischief that he underwent in 1 
less than three years and the mischief that he inflicted in three months, i 
RICH. 1 2 U 



11. ciiimitrcrs. Attendonts in a chamber, chamberli 
Berners' Froissarl, il. 6i, "nother eiamitrcr nor varlet entred 
them," See below, 86. lo. 

a J. Aw iodjl priuily fenced. His body was secretly piolectcd, l 
he vote a coat of moil ander his clolhing. 

fj. a nighlts=oi nights, i.e. by nigbt. 

ag. sterle. This, with leapt and ninne in the next line are pw* 
tenses = started, leapt, ran. For the last of the three Halle gives loM 

33. ouhvard means in his external circumstances and sarraandinES 
as opposed to his internal ogilati^n of mind. 

P. 86, line 1. in rat. At this point Halle has a long acconnt o( 
Richaid's journey to the north of England, and his IriumphiJ receplian 
in York, as well as a notice of some good taws which he enacted. 

5. frelmdid—iA forth, related, without any of the modem sense 

7. Kyng Edivard, i.e. King Edward IV, On the funeral honours 
paid elsewhere to this king, see 1. 33 note. 

g. Persal. Halle gives the name here " Persivall," but in another 
place "Persall." 

ig. He (Buckinghnm) would take the same line as he (Gloucester) 
would, and would wait upon him with a thousand good fellows. 

)£. sixe C, i.e. six hunilred, and below, line ag, CCC = 3O0. 

3a. ligklli, easily, with small provocation. CfTMark ix. 3^ ''No 
mao which shkll do a miracle in my name, can lightly speak evU 
of me." 

P. B7, line 5. diiki of Herfordis landis. Halle rightly reads "eric" 
for "duke." On the claim see notes on 43. i. 

13. ftaTld=iesI^i<n. An nnusual seose. 

17. come ride. For come thns followed by an infinitive wilhont la 
intervening. Cf. Shaks. Merchant of Venice, u. 7. 43, ' To come viem 
fair Porliii," also Lear, iii, 4. 157, "To came speak with you ;" and 
QihdlB, HI. 4- JO, " To bid Cosao conic sfeak with you," where there 
are two verbs following bid\ ' 

■Biherupan. Here Halle gives, " Whereupon gorgeously appa- 
reuea and sumpleously trapped with bumynge carte naves of goltle 
embrodered he rnade before the Kyng tbrouj^ London with an evill 

will and wooise harte." 

19. that tmlwithilanditig means "and yet in spile of the King's 

a6. lU the daies—ax that time. The article still retnining some- 
what of its original force as a. demonstrative pronoun. 

18. in that greiie -aiorld, i.e. while all was new and untried. For 
this figurative use aigreai cf. Sbaks. Richard III., n. ■>. 13, 

it (the compact) is bnt green, it should be put 
ent likelihood of breach." 

» M(RA=and men entirely believe. Halle gives 

to. Aigh bfheslfi, i.e. important uiders entrusted to him. 

15. •waxed, i.e. lu waxed. 

i5. The sense is. Whose (i.e. the bishop's) cleverness abused his 
(the duke's) pride so that he got free and the duke was destroyed. 

43. neuer rami hoiae. The conjunction and is here omitted. 

IB thiJUld. Ilalle adds "at Garnet." 

34. Ihilolkir, i.e. the king Edward IV., to whom after the death 
of Henry, Bp. Morton was attached. 

ag, 6y the tiranl, i.e. the protector Richard. 

30. lAiiduie, i.e. of Buckingham. 

%i. in his lop. The expression, which I have not found elsewhere, 
seems to mean "upon him." "Set Buckingham upon altackiog 

Xing MiHty, i.e. he who became afterwards King Henry VII. 

31. King EdwarJa deughlir, i.e. Elizabeth, daughter of Edwanl 

P. 89, line I. bolhe his masters, i.e. Edward TV., the father of 
EliKtbeUi of York, and Henry VII., her husband, with whom Morion 
came into great favour, as is stated below. 

9. /KWfl bloodes, i.e. the two families of York and Lancaster. 

3i cHsauiW=unquieted, disrjuietcd. If «i be not a. misprint for un 
Id the original. I have met with one similar instance, Dodsley, Rtturu 
J'rom Parnassus, ix. itr, 

"Where serpents tongues the penmen are to write. 
Where cats do brawl by day and dogs by night 
There shall engorgtd venom be my ink." 
In which passage engorged see'ras lo = disgorged. 

a. endtd them, i.e. he ended them. Ci. S3. 15 for a like omission 
of l£e pronoun, which is very common in this book. 

le. dri/les. Cf. on 81. ao. 

■8. balke. The word is cognate with "belch." To utter a lillle 
sotmd of envy against the glory of the King. Cf. Pilkington, Works, 
p. aos, " Priests with drunken nowls said matins and iejied out with 
good devotion as they thought." 

19, breide. The word means a noise, and is connected with the 
veib "bray" which now is used only of asses, but formerly was applied 
to the sound cf trumpets, and also to the noises of more noble animals, 
as elephants and horses. More has the noun again. Works, p. 443, 
" He brlngeth to the matter after his two years musii;g...oaly a ni^e 
maliciouse frantike braide," 

VO. ethe IB fat cut, i.e. ready for a quarrel. 

rather stinrd him, i.e. rather made himself appear. 


^^^K Tvit 


jj. bosi, i.e. l>oast = lo praise. Cf. Sliaks. Tmipeit, iv. 9. ^H 
"Do not smite at me that I boost her off." ^| 

30. I.e. the son of King Henry VI. nnd not King Edward IV. 
3^. 701/^ a dead man, i.e. On Che side of a dead mall strive against 

ihe living. 

P. go, line G. hi Ufl, i.e. left off, ceased speaking. 

31. As being a subject not entirely without danger. 

iS. bunch, a. bump or protuberance. So Kichaid HI. is calld 
hinch backed. Shaks. Richard JII. I. ^ 946 and Iv. 4. 81, though 
there is a varioas reading iimck backed, in both places. 

a great pail. We now Say '"ar a great pace." 

33. ^ = concerning. Cf. above on Bi. g. 

P. 91, linei. and (sometimeG written an)- if. What if he l:al1 il 
one? Cf. Dodsiey, Evtry Matt, r. p. 143, 

"Beware, for and they (his good deeds) be small 
Before God he hath no help at all." 
Also, The Ordinary, xil, p. is, 

"I'll save your worship that labour, nnV ( = Bn it) please yi 

5. tkebore. In allusioa to the coat of arms of the duke of G 
cester. See p. 48. 17. 

fykt. For this figurative use of /Ki=lD find out, discover, cf. 
Shaks. Mids. N. £>., v. 100, "Out of this silence yet I picied 
welcome. " 

18. for Ike bfttir lion. A sentence of much flatteiy, implying that 
in spite of the good store of abilities possessed by Ihe protector, those 
of buckit^ghoni were of a higher quality. 

31. of yaure grace. Halle completes the discourse and after that 
the character of the language differs in tola. The continuation of Har- 
dyng merely adds after "of youre grace" the words "and there left ol 
agayn," thus shewing a break whioi Halle has hlled up. 

P. ga, line 13. Htnry, larle of Richimondt. Afterwards Kiw 
Henry VI r. 

15. King Edaiardty death, i.e. the death of Edward the IVth. 
during the latter part of whose reign both the earl of Richmond atid 
the earl of Fembrske had been kept in a sort of bonouisble confine- 
ment by Francis duke of Eriltan/. See Lingard, IV. g6. 

16. with, i.e. in the custody of. 

34. Reynold Briye, i.e. Sir Reginald Bray. He was Steward in 
household of the Lady Margaret, King Henry Vllih's mother. 

He died in 1503. See Bacon's Hm. VII. (Pitt Press Series), iB. s? 

z. there remained nothing else to do. 

P. 94, line 1. maslrtsa. This orthography shews the 
ivith master. 

Incl. \^■e still use the ejpressicn tlia 

NOTES. it 

is well "appoinlBd," when all belonging to them Is in jjood order, ! 
here the verb means "lo order," "atrarge." Cf. 05. 8. 

In Materials illmt. a/ rdgn of Hin. VI!. (Rolls Series), we 
find, p. 16, thai Hugh Conwajr was, oo it Sept. 14NJ, appointed for 
life, keeper of the great wardrobe, by King lleaxj. He wns also made 
a CommissioQer of King's mines □□ i-j Feb. i486. But he afterwards 
cajne inlo disgrace and was removed from bis olTice. See j Aug. 14S7. 

33. Among the same entries we find a grant, 19 Sept. 1485, to Sir 
Richard Guldefocd, Knl. of the office of master of the ordnance and 
master of the armoury, and a grant for life of the houses and gjrounds 
upon the wharf of the Tower of London. He has lo do with the pre- 
parations for Ihe Coronation [13 Octr. 1485). He is made guardian of 
the property of a Minor (14 July, 148G) and there Eire numerous entries 
of payments made to him. 

1;, (M mdHcr— Dimost, cf. 1]. 33; 106. 18, and for an example 

P. 96, line 1. cnfarcid, i.e. stuffed full. The more common word 
is farctd. Cf. Jewell, Reply lo I fardins, p. «33, "The see of Rome, 
fanedv.'p and set out with lies." The verb is the rool ofyofw-meat = 

13. and that Ae might bee asserleinid, &c. = And that he (the King) 
might be made certain, assured. &c. 


it the ! 

JJUHOas, Marques of DorcesUr. This was Thomas Grey, Marquis 
of Dorset, fonoErly Earl of Huntingdon, and before that Lord Grey of 
Gioby. See above, 8. 31. 

39. Edward Courtenay was earl of Devonshire. 

P. 97, line 4. ij'w/ar:y^=to scatter, dispsrae. Cf Holland, Am. 
noma, p. 411, "Considering a great number of the horsemen were 
di^arcla asunder." 

10. embatailcd, set in battle array. Cf. Shalts. Merry Wives, 11. 
a. aCo, " Her defences wliich now arc too strongly embaitled against 
me." So Milton, Tractate on Education (Pitt ?ress Series), p. 17, 
" They have solidly united the whole body of their perfeted knowledge 
like the last embattiUing of a Roman legion." 

ai. ft ba come, i.e. to get him unio. We feel no difficulty in the 
coRcsponding phrase " whithei to be gone." 

P. 98, line I . helth. In the wider sense of welfare, security. 

4. Peter Curtnty, bishop of Exeter, received a grant from Henry 
'11. on It October 14S5, of the temporalities of the see of Salisbury 
forfeited by Thomas, bishop of Salisbury, through rebellion against 
the king and his royal dignity. See Mat. Illiist. of Reipt ofHea. 
W/. Vol. I. p. 8r. 

7. fehtt Bourshtre had been made Lord Bemers in I+55 and 
he seems to have died about this lime, for in 14S5, 15 Sept. a bailiff 
is appointed by Henry VII. over the estates during the minority of 
hi$ son, who is called Lord Bemers. Ibid. i. $7. 

8. Edward Wooduille, Knt. receives a grant for life (16 Sept. I485), 
of the office of keeper of the castle and town of Porcheati 

>s). ^t 



of Ihe survey and government of the town of Portsmouth, and Uie 
king's place there. The office had been held by John, earl of Salqi- 
Malerials, i. 7. 

g. Jiebtrt IViiloMghby. A failhliil servant of Henry VII, and 
greatly trusted by him. Mention is constantly made of him in tht 
Maieriais above quoted, where his name is the first mentioned. He 
was made Lord WiJloughby in 1485. 

Ci'&t Daubeuey. Afterwards Lord Daubeney, He was miJs 
deputy of Calais 1^ Henry VII. 

Thom<u Harandttt. This may be Thomas Arundel, Knt., Lord 
Matravcrs, to whom Henty VII. granted on 6 July, i<86, an anneily 
of 300 marks. See Materials, i. 482. 

Sirjaha CAyi* is often mentioned in the Jl/ijj'mo/r. where I. ifi, 
he is called "the King's full trusty Knight," and a grant is made ID 
Cheyne's servant Roger Penne " for faithful true service done to the 
kli^ in the parts beyond the sea and ever since." Several persons 
of the name Cheyne are mentioned, aJid presumably among them are 
Ihc " two brothers " of our text. 

II. Wil/iam Barie/y. Knt. of Bemerstnn was appointed (iT ScpL 
1485) "master and operator of the King's monies, and keeper of the 
King's exchange within the Tower of London, the kingdom of England 
and the town of Calais," Matariah, I. 7. 

Sir William Brandon, who had been "Marshal of the Marsl 
sie of the King's Bench," but was "so put in drede of his lyfe 
Richard, late in deed and not of right, King of England the 
that he was faine for salvacione of his lyfe to lake tuitioa and privile _^ 
of the seinctuarie of Gloncesler and there abode from the second year 
of the said Richard, unto youre comeing into this reaime sovereign lord" 
was restored to his office by Henry VII. in 148s. Materials^ 1, iij. 

13, Sir Richard Edgecombe is often mentioned in the early notices 
of Henry VII. On 10 Sept. 1485, he was made one of the Chamber- 
lains of Uie Exchequer, and on 7 June 1486 (in consideration of services 
as well in parts beyond the sea as in the kingdom of England), he 
received a grant of the manors of Totncsse, Comeworthy, HuessUe, 
and Lodeswell. 

13. Joha Halmell, Knt. is mentioned as Sheriff of Devon. 
Materials, I. 549. 

Robert [not £dward) Points is often mentioned in the Maitrieh, 
and on 15 Sept. 1485 was made Steward of Barton Hundred, Ac 
iring the minority of Edward, son of George, late duke of Clarence. 
-'ikel - ■ ■■ 

This seems most likely to be the person intended in the text. 
14. Ckristofher Urniricke. He was for some time mast. 
Hall (now Trinity College) in Cambridge. He was chaplain 


)f the 
gland I 

f^Sl I 

Christopher Ursanike. He was for some time master of Kin^s 

, low Trinity College) in Cambridge. He was chaplain to Lady 

Margaret, Henry Vllth's mother, and afterwards employed as am- 

bassador by Henry himself. 

14, a iondnian. It appears from this that villainage, or senntude 
tite land, had not yet entirely disappeared. 

15. its pardon. It was presumed that if he luien enoi^h to 
mformerhemustbe connected with the movements of Bnclungham, 
BO guilty in the eyes of Ihe party of King Richard. He '""lltL 

' !fOTES. 183 ' 

thecefore be encouraeed if it were proclaimed that he should hav 

ag. The aildilion of nat which is wowing in ihe origiDal is cleaily 
needed here for ihe sense. 

31. iw all l/iat hi migkl, i.e. as fur as ever he could. 

P. 99, line 1. la BrilaiH ward. The coasts that looked toward 

8. erfarlesyng, i.e. for fear oflosing. 

hym. I.e. the Duke of Buckingham, who had taken cefugE wi 
him. Cf. 97. •*%. 

9. furth-with all. As one word. We now only vise /ortituiVA. 
IT. bekeddcd. Halle tell us that it was done " upon Allsoules 

so. farbodc. By [his sentence it is implied that the allegiaDce 
cf Buckingham to the protector had at one time been such that for his 
sake he would have disregarded all God's proltibLtions. He had served 
fa im to the uttermost. 

13. BriloHs. Meaning "soldiers of Brittany." 

74. af his departure. "Of" is not here = "for," but the con- 
struction is "the appointed day of his departure," "the day of his 
deptarture which bod been appointed." 

P. 100, line 3. PaeU. On the coast of Dorsetshire. 

4. kanie!sid= equipped with armour. C f. Bp. Filkington's fVork!, 
p. 3a, " David, a young man with a sling and stone, liilU Golias sr ' 
strongly Aarnessid. 

10. a land. We still ssy ashore. Cf. line 10. below. 

19. cUane, i.e. uttetly, altoEelher. Cf. Bp Pilkington's iVorks. 
p. 3rf, "The wicked worldlings, thai have not God alore their eyes, 
seek clean contrary ways." See 103. ?o. 

16. arei(i;rf= rested. A forni unusual because of the other word j 
"arrested." But cf. Grafton's Chroaitle R.^ \. anno 8, " Wiien he j 
had arested hjra a lilel while he then Nolinghan 

19. Charles. This was Charles VIII. who reigned from 1483 to ■ 
149B. He was the son of Louis XI. who died in 14^3. 

30, of liberlee, i.e. for liberty. Cf. Shaks. Othello, III. 
" I humbly do beseech you o/'your pardon." Cf. loi. 11, 107. 

P. 101. line 8. jWmorf« = courage. Cf. on 5. 6. 
15. Veneti. The town of Vannes in Brittany > 
aftSrwards into France. 

31. Yai frame in the sense of "to go on well 
cf. Dodaley, Koister Doisler, lit. 10, 

"Now ihis year beginneth for Ka frai. 
94. Rhedent i.e. Hi'don, on the river Vilaine, sotne way south w 
of Kennes in Brittany. 

tmt Ihe Marque:^ i.e. sent the Marquis word, &c. 
— „jgyjiii^ i,5_ [))5y rejoiced. This omission of the pro: 

I Kngl 



31. ^lft|jVnJerf= previously designed or intended. We have tht 
word in " milice/repcnjic" 

101, line 3. that. The second ikat is superfluous. 
did take hym, i.e. did receive, accept, hold hiai foi king. 
. ef. Cf. too. 30, and note, alra 107. 8. 
I. rifaltd and lakat, i.e. r^arded and esteemed. Cf. 103. 4. 
103, line 11. nfithtr tkat tie should not. Another instance of 
le of the double negalive. 
I. bordcren. The Englishmen dwelling on the frontier of Scol- 

P. 104, line S. fiat Iheim. Not the ambassadors, but Heniy and Ihe 
lords who were with him. 

[1. Peltr Landosc. Landoia, the Breton minister, was induced 
to take the side of Richard by large bribes. See IJngiird, IV. 111. 

17. daierid hym instantly, Le. asked him urgently. Cf. Ps. Iv. 18, 
(Pr. Bk.). Also Latimer, Strm. p. izt, "He prayeth now the Ihirtl 
time, lie did it so inslanlly, so fervently that it brought out a bloody 

3]. /oni nn /ii« = came to no result. 

P. 103, line 16. few a counsaill. Few of counsel, i.e. look few 
* his counsel. Cf. I. 8; 8*. 47. 

18. Ptiibrouekf, i.e. Pembroke, 
■with at tkat mtr thd might. With nil speed that ever they 

Angtew, i.e. Anjou, and so they were in French territory. 
P. T06, line 6. rmwMfvi^— reached. Cf. Shaks. Tempest, ill. 1. 16, 
~ ' re I could retiwer the shore, live and thirty leagues." 

•naiur=\n some d^ree, almost. Cf. Shaks. J{ici, //. 
" You have in fnaniier with your sinful hours made 1 
divorce betwixt his queen and him." 

91. takyng the matter SB vnkyndely, i.e. being so much grieved, 
P. 107, line lO. ofvihom, i.e. by whom. 

13. to take na can, ie. not to be over aniions. The king does IWt 
mean that Henry is lo be leas earnest and diligent in his own cause, but 
only that he is not to lei anxiety press too much on him. Cf. Phil. iv. 6, 
, 17. before spoken. The previous mention was in the continuation 
of Hardyng, not in More's narrative. John. Earl of Oxford, is con- 
stantly mentioned among those to whom grants were made at the 
commencement of Henry VI I. 's reign. See Materials, pp, 13, 
31, &c. 

ig. Hammes. In Andrew Borde's Introduction of Knvadedge (E. E. 
T. S.), p. I47, we have an account of the " welfavered towne of Calys, 
the which doth stand commodyously for the welth and succor of all 
Englandc. In the whyche towne is good fare and good cheere, and 
there is good order and polytike men, greate defence and good 
otdynaunce for warre. The sayde towne hath anexed lo it for defence 
■"ynea, Hammes and Bysbanhe, Newman Bridge, and & blocke-ho wle 
(iravelyng in Flanders." JH 

^ NOTES. fS; 

to. Janit! Blount, In Mat. ilhis. of StigH of Hen. Vll. ive 
enleied 18 Feb, [4S6. an iDilenture between ihe king and Sir J: 
BlonnI Bs 10 his appointment to be lieuteaant dF llie castle of Hampne! 
(i.e. Hammes) in the parts of Picardy, and on March 1 of the same 
year the office was gtameii to him. 

Jhan Forskfwt. In the Eame volume we find, JD Sept. 1485, that a 
grant for life was made tu John Forlescue knt. of the office of lieutenant 
of the tower of Ruysbank in the pans of Picardy, wilh power to appoint 
ofiicen and soldiera under him for the safe- keeping of the said tower. 

P. 108, line 9. knirailedgi=\a acknowledge. Cf. Bp. Pilkinglon'i 
Works, p. 1137, "But this could not move them to knowledge him to be 
their I*rd and God." 

16. botke more and Usse, i.e. great and small, high and low. Cf. 
Sh&ks. Machith, v. 4. n, ''Both more and less have given '* 
revolt.' See also Hen. IV. (pi. i), iv. 3. 68 and (pi. a) 1. 1. n 

iS. Ruhard Poxe was JCing Henry VII. 's secretary, then w 
bp. of Exeler, Lord Privy Seal, afterwards bp, of Durham and of I 
Winchester. He was a trusted friend of the I^dy Margaret, and with ' 
Morton, Bray and Daubeney continued to be of great influence through 
the whole of Heniy VII.'s reign. 

P. 109, line I. rai/fi/ nc/AjiB^= nothing remained (to he done). 

6. feurgi hym of his facie, i.e. purge, clear him of whit he had 
already done. 

10. meiine of grauiiee=petsoos of weight and influe 
91. al fhingj Tuas pardoned. A not unusual violation of concord 

in the English of this time, Cf. Shaks. Cymb. 11. 3. 14, " Those springs 
on chaliced flowers that lies." 

36. To be "in a fool's paradise" is to be beguiled, led away by 
■what is unreal or untruslworlhy. Cf. Shaks. Romeo, 11. 4. 176, "If ye 
should lead her into a fooTs paradise, as they say, It were a very gross 
kind of behaviour." 

31. feared, i.e. frightened, d 
59, " They that will not be overcoi 

P. tio. tine 10. dyd gather of lhis,>nAaitA from what was 
said by (he king in his complaints. 

11. Ere it inert long after, i.e. before very long. 

P. Ill, line I. Imvard, ie. in connexion with, aiming al. Cf. 
Shaks. yiil. Cos., I. I. Bj, "If it lie aught Wnian/ the general good." 

15. Henry his. A common form for Henry's, Irom a mistaken 
idea that the i of the possessive case was a remnant of the pronoun. 

ji, in a readynesse. We say "in readiness," hnt the form In the 
text was anciently the more common. Cf. 1 Cor. x. 6. Also Latimer, 
Strm., p. Df. " And necessary it ia that a kyng have a treasure always 
in a readiness for that and such other aBaires as be dayly in hys handes." 
Geargt Strange. This was George Stanley who in 

■ bad been created Lord Strange, in right of Ms wife who was 
IT nnd heiress of William, I.oixl Slrnngc. 


^^^^Har nni 


6. Ihe lanri. ■ Here 15 meant the territory in France at Ihal time 
held by the Enelish. 

II. Calyce, i.e. Calais. There was the strongest English force and 
HamnMi was dose by. 

17. lorli 0/ mmnc. Cf. Grinilal, Werts, p. 44, "Christ minis- 
tered this sacrainent, not lo C'^^''- and deep philosophers, but to a 
sortoS ignorant and unlearned fishets." Sort = company. 

ij. (a strength. Fomieriy common where we now use strm^hm, 
Cf. Fabyan, ChrDiiidi, c ipfi, "His body was viii foot long, and his 
armes and leggys well leogthed and sirengthtd after the proporeion of 
the body." 

13. layde harde to their charge thai wert withcut. This means 
' *■ they charged heavily upon their assailants outside." 
I ^5- ^f I/" backe side, i.e. in Ihe tear. 

P P. 113, linefi. fgolts paradice, cf. log, as, note. Cf. also Lyly. 
I S,ttfhutSt p. 69, "Smiling lo himself to see how he had brought— 
Philaului into afaoTs faraSise." ■ 

8. should.. .ta ■wail. Tlie /a here is superfluous. But ii 
tff was not insetted liefore any infinitive governed by another t .... 
Thus shou/d to ■uiaki is but an extension of what has been doO 
throughout the whole of the modeiii language. Cf. 11. id. ; 

37. as wia say. This seem3 = a5 Ihey mean who say, 
supra, and infra 111, 33 foe a fuller phrase. 

31. furth, i.e. fot«-nrd, with the history. 

P. 114, line 1. Charlis the kyng. This was Charles VIII. of 
France, who began lo teign in I483, being only then thirteen years 

3. Lewes prynce of Orlyannee. This was Louis, duke of Orleans, 
the ^rsl noble of the blood royal, and who afterwards became I.ouls 

5. John, i.e. Joan, Jeanne, the sister of Charles VIII. and second 
daughter of Louis XL 

15. parckased. In the simple sense of "procured" without any- 
thing of the modem idea of obtaining by payment. Cf. Sh**-""" 
Winter's Tale, iv. 4. 551, " Parchsse the sight again of dear SicilU- 

18. secrete of Ihtir counsel = acquainted with all tlieJr pian 
P. I J J, line IT. Roan, Le. Rouen. 
13, and purposed, i.e. and that he (Richard) purposed. 
15. Citile. See I, 11 and note. 

19. ii'fljAflf= disappointed, frustrated. Cf. Shaks, H(h- VI. (pt, J 
II. I. ii8,"WilharullinlenttDfl'arAoutlatedecree." ^ 

Lorde Harbarl. William Lotd Iletbett, Eatl of rembn 

and afietwarda Eatl of Huntingdon. 

Henry. This was Heuiy Percy, Eail of Notthumberland. 
[6, Une 4, yohn ap Morgan. In the Materials illustrativi of 
1 of Htn. VI!. we find the ofSce of Clerk of the pa tUa me als 

giauled on 9 Oct. 148^ to John Morgan, and under the same name^^l 


find mention of one styled " the Vings clerk and conncillor." 
mentioned here as a Umboral lawyer, because the offices of the law I 
were at this time generally held by the clei^- AH the Lord Chan- 
cellors before the days of tjit Thomas More tumself had been derics. 

5. Also to Ryctap Themai are granted 3 Nov. 14B5 the offices of I 
constable, lieutenant and steward of the lordship of Brecknock, and T 
three days later the uHice of Chambtrkin of South Wales. Cf 
liS. B. 

6. Oa iglh Sept. 1484 grants were made by Henry VII. t 
Christopher Savage, son of Sir John Savage (in consideration of true ] 
and faithful service as well for the repressing of our rebels and traitors 
as Dlherwiseji also to James Savage, another son of Sir John, i 
John Savage, the younger, then lo Sir John Savage himself, and after- 
wards lo Edward Savage, another of his sons. So that the whole 
iiuntly were high in favour with the new king. 

6, his pari of course means Henry's part, though Ih-m is pronoun 
immediately preceding. 

la. fyHpr—i£\.^A. Not very conuDOQ with an objectivB ease after I 
it. But cf. "Sha'ts. Midi. Night, l. 1.4, " She lingers my desires." 1 

15. calatdcs, the first day in any month in the Roman almanac. ' 
The word is that from which we derive "calendar." There is clearly 
some error in the text, for the seventh day after the first could not he the 
92Dd of the month, but the Eth. Moreover, August imd was the day 
of Ihe battle of Bosworth, between which and the day of Hen^'s land- 
ing some lime must have elapsed. It is singular m connexion with 
these wrong dates, that the rolls of Parliament date the reign of 
Heniy VII. as commencing 21 Aug. I485, the day before the battle of 1 
Bosworth was foiwht. 

ai. MaTfirdr\.e. Haverford. 

as. make. This use of the verb 05=' effect,' * do," is liki 
in the phrase 'neither meddle nor make.' 

31. i» a rcdyncsse. Cf. Jll. 31, and note there, also ii;. 

P. 117, line 3. Cariairdine, i.e. Carmarthen. 

5. loie himsdfe to, i.e. betook himself lo, applied bim 
Shi^. Pericles, In. 4. 10, ' a vestal livery will I iati me In 

g. vrai quiel, cf. supra, 109, to. 

30. vnre. This verb has been drawn ini 
cemmcmttdetieitles immediately preceding it. 

P. 118, line 10. rewardcs of them, i.e 

13. this tidynges. " Tidings" was used indiscriminately as 1 
dneulBr or plural in the English of Shakespeare's time. Cf. Macbeth, I 
U %. 3>i "What is your tidings?" So Rtch. II., 11. i. rjt, " How ] 
aeai w tidings ai oia comhit is," See below, 110. i£. 

^.^{JwwiSikdurE, 9 miles e 

o the plural by the word I 
. rewards received lirom.'l 


is Lord Strange; 
P U9.iine, 

<, lini 

il form for told ; cf. I 

lad prosperoi 
™ j^;' So ti 

t they 

a'pf-rt_>'=lhat which, i.e. a i 
IS worthy (to be noticed). 

i8. lOHtu!., an error in the original for sohiu. There 
a in Richard'E hands. See tu. i. 
JO. The preparation on the part of King Richard wa; 
was reported to him by his friends. For slauier in 1 
'mv, 133. s; and Shaks. Two Cenllemcn, 1. 36, 
"Other men, of slender reputation, 
Put forth their sons to seek preferment 
P. 131, line 17. Grants were made by King Henry to Simon Digby 
-1 Sept. 1485, and to Brian Sandeford on Nov. solh of the same 


I tind . 

semytig, apparently ^/oByi'nf, but of this 
parallel. Perhaps Che sentence is elliptical for " it seemmj;. 
P. 121, line ir. lowardethi latter daye, i.e. when the end 

13. thtm tclfe, i.e. Ibe offences. 

35. Northfolke. I.e. Norfolk. This was John Lord Howard 
had become dnke of Norfolk in right of his wife in \^ii. 

P. 113, line I. in an ordre. Where we now say "in ordt 
below 114. II. With a» anger=with anger, 

14. dtmbte Is, i.e. twice as much as. 

36. "To pay home" is "to pay in full, satisfactorily." cf 
Tempest, ' ' 1 will /ly thy graces hamt" Also K'mter's Tale, 
■'All my services you ^ paid kerne." 

P. I34,line6. more freshlier. Double comparatives and supeil 
were not unusual in More's day. Cf. Shaks,, Tempest, I. 3. ig, 
better, and 439 io the same scene more braver. 

7. first wardes. As the van was called (hn forward of the host, sn 
all the front would constitute ^s first-wardes. 

9. fiwt. This word is so rarely used with a singular noun Bs here, 
that it seems likely for "compaigny" we should reaii ''conipaignys." 

ai. to ieep tache appears to mean "to manage," "Id succeed." 
Can it be =tact? I don't know the phrase. 

31. vihiche then was. This refers to the men, but the singular is 
used for the plural. Cf. 109. la; 117. 9. 

P. 13;, line 30. For xxvii- should be read Kxii., and in the 
following line 148^ for i486. These are signs that the continuation 
of Hatdyng had not been revised, but was left by the authc ~ 
~~ '' Hugh as we have already noticed to have been the 


the case Wl*^l 

NOTES. 185 

13. d— have. Ttiis is colloquial English to the present tim^ and 
was so in More's day. Cf. Shaks. Namlit, IV. 5. G4, "So would I a 
done," and Love's Labour's LesI, v. a. 17, "She might a been a 
gtandam." Another instance comes io line 13 below. 

P. 116, line 6. cannot hn exprtssot, i.e. the event spealts louder 
than any words could do, as a warning to deter nthet^. 

6. The is is omitted in the original, but clearly by mistake, pro- I 
bably through this being the word just belore it. 

15. hihd, i.e. (ended so that they might be healed. 

Hardyng's continuatoT both here and 107, 8 uses immortal in B 
manner peculiar to himself=lhe memory of which shall be preserved. I 
There immortal bentjite = an aid which be would never foi^ct, and here i 
the thanks are called immortal because Ibey were not given for the 
nionient only, but to be ever continued. 

17. neuer forgil. His grants prove that he was as good as his 

15. earrhge in old EnElish meant "ba^age" "that which was 
carried," not "the vehicle in which men rode." Cf. Earle"s Micrv 
CBsmngrapkif, p. 41, "'Not loaden with any carriagt beside." 

33. was Inirifd. Ten years later Henry caused a tomb to be 
erected over the grave. 

P. 137, line 15. The sense is ; Which death he would rather suffer 
by the sword, than he would by shameful flight try and save his life 
There is a some- 

se of the w 


a Shaks. Com. of Err, 

"Yet I will yiiMwr thee in what I c 
Beg thou, or borrow to make up the sura 
And live, if aol, tbeo thou art doomed t' 

Angeou (Anjou), 105, aj ; 106, 7 

Anne (daughter of Richord, Earl 

of Warwick, wife of Richard 

III.), I..,, 

Anne, daughter of Edward IV., 

(Ilximplirey), 97, ns 

99-7 , 
Barwycke (i.e. Berwick on Tweed) , 

3. 16 
Bsrnaid's Castle, 74, 30 
Bedford (Duchess of), 18, 31 
Berkeley (Wlllmm). 98, 11 
Blountj (James), 107, ig; in, 7, 
Slant ! 79 

Bosworth (town oO, m, al 
Buichere ) n i 1 ,0 _ 
BounhOT 0°''* 98, li i,s, .0 
Butichere I (Thomas), 119, j6; 
Burschier ( no, 6 
Biackenbeiy (Sir Robert), 81, ^6, 

"9; 83, i; 8+. 10; 119, I3i 

I30, 11 ! I- 
Brandon (Thi 

Brandon (William), 

17; '2!, <0 
Breeknock (town of), 88, 11 
Breya Reynold (Sir Reginald 

Bray), 93, 14 ; 94, 6 ( 1 16, 7 
Brigette (Bridget), daughler of 

Edward IV., 1, II 

Cheyney (Humphrey), 1 
Chr&topher, 94, 8, 19 
Clarence (George, duke of), 5, ^ 
9- S, 3«; 7. 7' 91 63, aSjr 


Clifford fRobert), loi, 16 

•5: 9}. 3i< 33: 9S. i9;^H 

Clifford (Roger), IM, »4 

>n 103. 3>: 106, lo ^H 

Coke (Aldermin), 68, . 

broke, 116, 31 

Colchester down oO, 115. 8 

Conwny (Hugh), 94, 10 i 95- "> 

Gloucester (city of), 81. 16; 86, 

Courtcnay (Edward, Earl of De- 

31; 87.34: 88,1. 

vonshire), 96, 30 ; 98, s 

Gloucester (Richard, duke of), 4. 

Counenay (Peler, bp. of Exeter), 

"is, 4, i5i7. so. J4in. ij; 

96. 30 i 08. + 
Croshie's place, 43, 30 

"4. 7. U. 10; 15. 18. JSi r8. 

13,31, 36; 31, 13i JJ, 33; 70, 

IQ 1 
Gray (Elizabeth, queen of Edi^U 

Dale (the, near MUford), 116, 19. 

IV.), j8. 30; sg, 1; 6a, ^^H 

Daubene>- (Giles), q8, g 

6]. 15; 93,8) 109, 14 ^H 

Deitford, nunnery at, t, 14 

Gray(SirJohn), 59, 3 ^H 

Devonshire (county of), 96, 19 

Digby (Simon). 111, 17 

Dighton Qohn), 8j, 18, 31 j 83, 

Gray (Richard, Lord), 17, «o;^^H 

Green, John, Bi, 14, ag, 33 ^^| 

GryHjthes (master), 117, 10 J^H 

■- Dorcester, i.e. Dorset (Thomas, 

Guilforde (Richard), 94, a3;^^B 

^^^^maniuisof), 8, 31; ij, ii, 36. 


^^■^i; g6, ifiiSS, 6: loi, 

^^^^09. 8; III, ii> 16. 35, 33; 

Halwell Qobnj, 98, 13 ^H 
llammes (castle o[}, 107, 18; i^H 


^^^TOgECQinbe (Richard), 98, 11 

Harbart (Lord), iij, 37, 39; ^H 

■ Edward (son of Henry VL), 111, 

3, 13,31: 119,3 ^H 

Harford'/, -, .^ ^^^M 
Herford!("'"°°f'- '«'■ "■ 3^M 

Edward (King) IV., r, . ; 5, 4, 

Ji; 7, 2, 14. 18; 8, rs: 13, 

Harnseye (Hornsey), 31, 18 ^H 
Harondell (Thomas). 98. 10 ,f^M 

11 ; 70. J3 ; et sjepe 
Edward (Prince), afterwards Ed- 

Hastings (a pitrsuivant), fo, ^^U 

Eliiabeth.'' daughter of Edward 

H^iings (Richard, Lord). 8, |H 

IV.. J, 9; 91,31; 93,30, 31; 

>4. 9; 2'. 6, 30; 43. i4i a^ 

rt, 14, 31; 4i, J, 10, 17; 4^ 

Ely(Bi?h'op"f), 43''i4;'4'i-3 

31; 47. 3': 48,30, 3Ji 63. 5 

Esop, 90, 35 

Henry (King) VL. 3, i,; 4. 38, 

33i 5. ai 6, 34; etsiepe 

Feris (Waller), us. 3 

Henry TKing) VIL. t. loVSr,*^ 

Fitiwilliam (Recorder of London), 

HeniylKingjVIlL, r, 11; t.^H 

73. 'o 

Hertford) (Earldom of], 43- ^H 

Flanders, 98, iG; I14. 31 

Herford j 87. 5 ^1 

Fogge. 80, 4 

Holbom, 46, i ^M 

Forest (Miles), 83, 3S, 30; 85, 9 

HollaDd, 61, IS l^M 

FoTskewe (John), 107, 19 

Hungerford (Walter), rig, ^^H 

Foie (Richard), (afterwards Bp. 

>30,6 ]^l 

. ofWinchester). 108, 17 
^^^^pUlce, tribute from, 3. 14 
^^^^Hftncis (dulie of liiittatiy). 91, 

Hutton (Thomas), 95, i; 98. a^H 

John (i. e, Jeanne), sister orChal^| 


VIII. the king of Fiance, 114, 

Katheijne, daughter of EdwarJ 

rv.. t, 16 
Keot (coimty of), 94, 14: gG, 31 

(Paerl, ,o<,„i ,oS. ,: 

Leicester), 44, 37; 

I30, 3; 

'Ji 3' 
Lewes (a pbj^cian), 93, 10 

Lewis XL (King nf France), 

47. ^i h*- 7; 86, 16; 8j, 15; 

97. 7; "7. 3«; 'iS, iS 
L<mdon (Bishop of), jj. 17 
London (Mayor and aldermen of), 

3>iS: 77. 13 
London (GuildhnU), 66, 16 
London (Tower of), 17, 17; 43, 

30; 45. ■'6j4a. 13; 45. '8, 33; 

SO, 9; SI, i8; SS. »7i S8, IS 
LovcinFrancia), ly, 7 
Lucy (Elizabeth), 61. 30; 61, J, 

6; 63,39; 64, asi 7°i H 
Ludlow, 13, 8 

Margnret (queen of Henry VI.), 

93. ■■ 

»7; 94. ». Si los-; 

109. 's; - ,. -. 

Markain (Chief Justice). 67, 31 
Maltin'i, St, 8s, a 
Mathewe, John (sheriS), 33, 16 
Milford iMven, 116, 18 
Morgan (John ap], it6, 4; 11 

Mvsllcbrooke, 7, (4 
Nsiliefeldes 74, 4 (see notes) 

I, «s; 

Noniiaiidy, gg, 31 ; 100, 35, 31 
Norlhamplon, 15, J4; 16, 15; 19, 

Northumberland (Henry, Earl of), 
11.1, 31: 119. 9! "•■*. '" 

Nottingham (town of), 
1.8, 3J 

Oxenforde (Oxford), John, Earl of, 
107, 16; 113, 6, 16; 133, 7, 
18; 134, 5, 18 

Paris (city of), 107, 33; 108, 14J 

Paul s cross, 57, 15 ; 63, 34, 31 
Pembrucheji.e. Pembroke), count 

of, 116, 38 
Pembroke (Enrl of), 105, 18 
Penker (friar), 57, 5,11, 18 
Persal, 86, 9, 16 
Pointz (Edward), 98, IJ 
PooQtftaitel (Pontefraci). 18, 14: 
Pomfract > 47, 4; 50, 30; sB. 
Pounfreit J 19 
Poole (town of), 100, 3 
Potlyer, 7, 16, 17, 18 
PoynjTigs (Edward), 106, 16 
Ram (Thomas), loi, 15 
Ramncy (Thomas), 94, 14; 95. 10 
Ralcliff (Sir Richard), 55, 33; 8j, 

16; US. 3 
Rhedoti (in Brittany), tol, 34 
Richard UL (King), 81, 15 
Richmond (Henry, Earl of), 93, 

18; 94, 365 95, 3; 97. '8; gs, 

30; M, 11; los, 7; 113, 31 
Rivers (Lord), Sir Antony Wood- 
■■' - ' - i7i 15, 6, 30, 

13; so, 16 

loan (town of), 
tome (city of}, S 





Rowel! (Thomas), 96, 18 

Tamworlh (village of), no, 5 


Russel (Dr, Bishop of Lincola), 

Temmes (Thames) river, 30. 

'3, " 

Thomas(SirRiceap), 116. 5. 


St Mary (hospilal of). 57. Ji 

St Paul's (bishop's palace al), 41, 

Tower Hill, 85, n 

TyrreU (Sir James). 81, 9. 19 



83, 3,8, 14; 84,9, 13. 33; 

85. ' 

St Peter, 56, 9, »; 31,10 

Tyrrell (Sir Thomas). 81, 19 

Salisbury (city of), 97, 8, n ; 99, 

Urswicke (Christopher), 98, 


Sanford (Brytanne), iir, 17 

105, 3. "> 

Savage (joha), 116, 6, 14; ill. 

'7; "3. 9 

Vaughan, Sir Thomas, r8, 5, 

Scots (peace with the), 103, iS 

Vcneti (a city of Brittany), 

Selenzer (Thomas), loa, 1$ 

iSi lofi, 9. i6j '06, IS 

Severn (rivet), 117, 31 

Scyn (haven of), ir5, ii; 116, 16 

Wal;efield, j, 3 

Shaa (Edmonde), Lord Mayor, n, 

Wales, 34, 14; 93, 16: 94, 

ii6, 10, 16; 118. 6, 33 

Shaa(DrJohn), 57,4, 14.13163. 

Warbeck, Perkin, 80, 19; 81 

*3' 3^ 

Warde (John), 8(5, ro 

Shore's wife (J^ne Shore), 4J, 8, 

Warwick (town of), 81, 33 

'7; S*- '8; 53. "31 <>9' '7 
Shrewsbury (town of), 117. 3': 

Warwick (Earl oO, 58. S3. 

59, 6, 16; 61, iij 63, 19 

118, s. " 


SlauEhtcr. William, 83, t8 

Welshe (John), 98, 7 

Spain, iS, 53. ^5 

Welshmen, 97, 13; 113, 13 

Stafford (town of), liB, 18 

Westminster, r, s; i, 33; 15 

Stafford (Humphrey), ii£, 7 

<3i 31. (i; 45- 3°> <^i. lG^^■ 

Stafford (Thomas), 135, 7 
Stanley (Thomas), 103, 4; ill. 

■8; ..., 3 

White, William (sheriff), «, 

33, 36, a8; 117, 28; ii8, 15; 

WillQughby (Robert), 98, 9 

130, 17; 111, Hi i",3i; 113, 

Winchester (city of), 108, it 

StanlW"wil^a™), "r, 13; "8 

Windsor, 1,34; 3.14! 48.' 

Wodefeld (Woodville), the i 
WWviDc (Edward), 98, 8j 


Stinl'ey (Lord)', afterwards Eatl of 


Derby, 43, 14; 41. 10,31; 47, 


33; 48, « 

Stony Stratford, 15, 18; |6, 11, 


iSJ 17. 8; 19, 19; iS. 3' 

York (ciountv of), 96, 17 
York, Archbishop of, 19, ii; 

Si lange (George), iii, i 


Surrey (Earl of), i.e. Thomas, 

5; 11, 1! 33,7; 1$. 38! 43 

Lord Howard, 1, ij; jij, .=, 

York (Duchess of, mother of Ed- 


ward IV.), S9. 19: 61, IS 

York (Richard, Duke of), i. 9 

Talbot (Gilbert), 111, 13; 117, 

34i 34, rs; i8, i: 64, iSj 



•8; 71, 6; 78, s 



a (inter).), at, 36, 9 

a (prep.), of, I, 8; 30, 4 ; 8,1,37; 

t05, 16 
(^asktd (p. p.), downcast, 46, 30 ; 

71, si; 83, u;95. ss; i". S; 

aihemiHohU (adj.), abaminable, 

aiaiil (adv.), around, standing by, 

ainse (v.), to turn to a wrong use, 

lo pervert. 88, 16 
aiusiem (n.), abu<;e;, 71, iS 
accempttd (p. p.), accounted, reck- 

aamipling (a ), omon, joining (□- 

gethev, ;o, jx 
atguilid {p. -p-)i requited, repaid, 

70. 3 
eulhibit (p. p.), invited, summoned, 

adjoym (v. trs.}, to join, to unile, 

x\l, 16 
ado* (n.), ado, trouble, 6, i 
- adotuni (aAiA, down, 17, u 
aOvtnfrd (p. p.), avenged, g.i, 15 
ad-BttUurl (n.\ peiil, risk, 67, 3 

0/ advsntHre=aX. random, by 

dioncc, hnphfuard, 48, 3; 55, g 
tiorrtist (v.), to inform, 8^ I4; 

advmaltii (n.), adultery, 64, 6 
n/ir^ (adv.), forward, 17, 14; be- 
fore (of lime), 110, g; lao, 8 
o/t^r (prep.), like as, like unto, 

35i 5 
afUr (prep.), next lo, 15, 3 
after IfiAy.), afterwards, 10, 4: 57, 

10; 58, 30; HI, 14; IJ7, 16 
afyre ladv.), on lire, 14, 7 
agayne (prep.), against, 8, 33; 

agritnlh (v.), a^ravaletb, makes 

agriviii (p. p.), aggravated, made i 
grievous, 68, 13 

a-knowcn (part.), knowing, cog- 
nizant of, conscious, 78, 30 

a/, alt (conj.), although, 13, ijj 
S3- 4; 66. lo; 69, II 

D/(adv.), utterly, 74, n 

alaiid (adv.), Co land, 100, 10, 10 . 

o/iu (n,), allies, g, 13; 10, iB. 

allcctive (n.), inducement, entice- 
ment, 4i, 23 

aimotsi (n.), alms, a chanty, 31, 

(l/mw (adv.), in a lowiyplaci 

down, ia, 4 
alternate (adj.), changing, vary- 

Ptarf (cotij.), if, 37, . 
•»irfi/(coni.). if, .1 
^act (adv.) quick I 
a^/nuflf (p. p.), bt 


afaa (adv.) quickly, 4S, 6 
i^/nuflf (p. p.), brougbt to a set- 

llemenl, ar, ig 
ipfetitt (n.)i liking, wiati, desire. 

57. I i 61.6 
ippoincl, appoint (v.), to deter- 
mine, to settle, to make ready, 
provide, 34, 14; 94, 13; 95, 8; 

afroinlminlt (n.), a mispnnl m 
the original for appimlmenie, 
7+. 3J 

arcsltd (pret.), rested, refreshed, 

aslepi (adv.), obliquely, indirectly, 

asiaitd, assayed (pret.), made trial 

of, attempted, 45, 1 1 ; 98, a 
assay (v.), to sltempt, to try, 98, 

asstmhk (□■), assembly, multitude, 
[4, a a 

asstrieined (p. p.), certainly in- 
formed, made certain, 96, 13 

assured (p. p.), resolved, 101. 17 

as/Bnied, asloHnid (p, p.), aston- 
ished, 46, 11; loo, 17; 114, 34 

oj alio j'(jf=so to say, as if one 
should Eay, 13, 5; 113, 16 

alehymtdi^. p.), achieved, accom- 
plished, 33, ao 

atlcnip/e ly.), to tempt, 108, 30 

allendaunt (adj-), prepared, in 
attendance, 16, 7 

allontmtnli (n.), setting at one, 
reconciliation, r3, 31; 15, 5 
'e (prep.), betwixt, tjelween, 

ki4. 33 

auitlitrilii (n.), authority, 44, 16; 

51. 9; 57, a, -!6 
aulortlte, auloritee (n.), authority, 

103, 17; ro4, 13 
aunncnt (adj.), old (of pereonsj, 

autaures {a.), authors, devises, 

9i. 'g 
aHauisccd (p. p.), advanced, 4, iS 
avoydcd (p. p.), put forth, sent 

away, got rid of, 86, 15; 103, ao 

hable (n), babble, noisy talk, jt, 

halke (v.), to Utter forth, to emit, 

8g, iS 
ban (prcL), U bear sore=-V> be 

annoyed with, g, 4 
hart (pret.), behaved, aa, 3a 
bastlia.), basely, bastardy, 64, 8 
be, bee (r pi. pres. ind.), ate, 37, 

a6 ; 67, a 
je (3 pi. pres. ind.), are, 10, 111 

27, 11; 19, i5i 40, 17; 73, 3r 
btioits, btkyiis (n.), signal- iires, 

113, 16, ao 
btsk (n.), a signal given by a nod, 

4'. II 
bie (p. p.), been, a6. 6 ; ao, 15 
btedis (n.), (conn. -with i(i/=«sk). 

prayers, go, 9 
beestawed, bestcwed (p. p.), 

stowed, set, placed, i( 

48.4 , 
be/cre (adv.), in the front, 

them, 73, 1 
iegile (v.), to beguile, sr, i; 
bihestes (n.), commandmenti 

ders wliat to do, 88, 10 
hehe«fe (n.), possession, 

ben (inf.), to be, 33, gfi 
j^n (p. p.), been, 46, i ; 4 
betide (n.). a hand, s co 

(applied tn the body of conn 

favourites), 13, I4; rg, 19 
bene (3 pi. pres.), be, are, 34, 17 

3?i 3» 
bentfites {tvX good actions (f 

posed to evil), 4: " 


vralchM. . , 
btlatm (p. p.), committe<J, 

trusted, 13, ij 
bttokt (prel.), belook, e 

&At(pret.>, beat, 117, tg 
bewrafftd (preL), wrapped up, 

bigamy (o.), used in the text for 

marriage with a woman who 

has already had one husbnnd, 

60,15: 61. ■>' 
hleedt (n.), family, 10, 1 1 : 8(}, t 
blowtn (p. p.), blown, circulated 

(of a report), il, 4 
bench (n.), a buuch, a lump, 90, 


boocherty {adj.), bntcheily. 6. 19 
beoTtlyc (adj.). burly, large, i, 18 
beoltd, boltd (pret.), profited, 

availed, 18, 11; 4^, 7; 59, 18 
bvota (d.), boats, ^o, 11 
bardi (n-), a table, 47, 17 

'""" (p- P') (°^ ''"^ i^ii>ig^)i C' 

hibited, shewn, 70, 1 
far* (r.). to extol, talk loudly in 

favour of, 8g, as 
bctilis (adj.)i bootless, unprofit- 

aWe. 39. '4 
heuttUmst (adj.). boisleious, f6, 4 
Jn^(v.), to vaunt, to boast, iij, 

irtii* (pret.), intemipfed, 49, 33 

brastt (pret.), burst, 74, a6 

^ii,(f, brtke (v.), lo disclose 

make a communication, 41, 31 

.; S7, 541 66,28; 83,31 

brtHnynge (n.), bumii^, 8, 
briginders (n.), briganuines, 

btvluH (p. p.), opened up, reveal- 
ed, 56, 35 

bHshminl (n.), ambushmeut, 
body of men placed in readi- 
ness for any purpose, 74, 3 

but (conj.), unless, g, 96 

bul if IfiODy.), unless, except, 10, 9. 
36, 30; 54> "'I i8. 16 ! 7S. S 

fc ladv.), close by, close at hand. 
So, 6 

by (prep.) = concermag, of, about, 
44, 191 46, 33, 3a; 50, 19; 
81, 9; 90, 33 

by and by (adv.), soon, immedi- 
alely. 10, tf; 17, 19; 19, 1^ , 
»o, 3»; 73. 26; 114, 33; 1:9. , 
sg; 13], 1 

bydt (v.), remain, abide, 35, i 

bye (v.), to buy. 103, 1 

byrtft (prel,), took away, 69, 19 

can (v.), to know, 79, 6 

carcfiil{aiy), grieved, annoyed at, 

carriage, earrya^ (n.). baggage, 

33, 16! 136, IS 

carriage (n.), the act of carrying, 

19. 3'= 
east [a.], a model, a conlrivance, 



irtcht (n.j, breach, breaking, 37, 

cerlaigru (adj.), certain, 103, «1 

eertcc (adv.), verily, 67, 4 

chaffed (ptet.), chafed, fretted. 
137, 8 

chamberer (o.), a chamberlain, 85, 
31 ; 86, 10 

charnel-houst (n.), place for pre- 
serving the bones of the dead, 
54. '7 

ehere (n.), mirth, 
IS. 30; tS. H 

dapptd (preL), rallied, banged, 

47. »B 
(leaiu, cletu (adv.), nllerly, enlire- 

ly, loo, igi 103, M. 
(ham madt (adj.), well fashioned 

(of limbs), 1, j6 
etcHti (n.), cleanness, purity, 60, 

complyecs (n.), accomplices, Jf, 
conceyte (n.), i^ea, notion, imii£t- 

timdisctnded (pret. and p. ^.), 
agreed, 31, 7J 71, 19 

amdidtms (n.j, qnalities (of a per- 
son), 64, 31; 8a, 30; cf. in- 

andyng (adj.), condign, well-de- 
served, 137, ifi 

close (adj.)i to kttp closi=tn lie in 
concealmenl, lo hide oneself 
away, 16, 17 

■Auf (adj.), confined to a cloister, 

eohtrctil (p. p.), coerced, com- 
pelled, 97, 14 
colour (n.}, excuse, preleit, renaon, 

35. "i 61. "7; 53i <9; 58. s 

CBleurabU (adj.), having a shew of 

reason, specious, 11, g 
nwf* (B//afCT//»'pret.) = cttine, 47, 

lo converse, to discuss, 49, 32 ; 

FMS (adj.), common, ordinary, 
H, 7; 57. 30; 68, 13; Bi, 3; 
no, 16; III, 17 

( (p. p.), come, 65, 8; 66,- 

17; ?'. 

), 36 ; 1 


: (n.). the ■ 
mons, the common people, 73, 
14. H; 74. i8 
. camoning (pres. part.), commun- 
ing, 45, 3^i 40. ? 
cemmaditc, cammmiity, commodilie 
(n.), advantage, 8, 17; ri, 15; 
33. »6; 4-'. «9; S5; 31 

, tendency, 1 

ural 1 

1,46, 19 

engaged ■ 


eentracUd (p. p.), 

marry, 111,6 
coirvayde (p. p.), < 

imparted to some one, 6, 30 
comiigk (v.), to convey. 106, 59 
coHVtnycnle (adj.), suitable (of 

person), 15, 19 
cmjtiise (n.), covetousness, gj, %• 
eoumfassed (prel.), " "" 

planned, t7, 13 
ceumpinablt (adj.), &ieiidly, I 

6, 18 
anmaled (pret.), counselled, ft 

counsaHe (n.), council, c 

countinaius (n.), a sign by a loiAi 
35. 14 

camly (adj.), comely, 79, 99 J 

cunning [iSl)), (in a good iq 

knowing, intelligent, 70, [f 

dagcr (n.), dagger, 8f;, 1^ 
daici In.), days, at the daietM 
that time, S7, 16 J 

ifo/iHi {v.),dftlly, sport, it4' ^° 
dashed (p. p.), broken down, over- 
thrown, IIS, "9 
dasill (v.), to duzle, 133, ir 
dailingt (n.)i course of action, 
condad, 18, to ; 10, 3£ 1 43, 38 
aWa*f(n.), contest, quarrel, 11, 30; 

dibotiayrt {ti].), affable, 

agreeable, 3, 11 
datast (v.), to die, t, 93 ; 4, i ; 

dtduicien (n.), introduction, pre- 

di/mded (p. p.), defiled, 60, 15 
deluded (p. p,), set at nougbt, 

overthrowD. 59, 18; <ii, 11 
depte (v.), to think, 6, 33 
demtane (v.), to regulate, ii, 8; 

80,33 , , 
rfemMnei/fpret.), treated, 33, 8 
demeaiKure (n.J, behaviour, cnn- 

dacl, 4, 19 ; ID, 7g 
dempte (prel-), deemed, judged. 

discharging (part.), delivering 

goods, 15, 3 a 
datased (adj.), diseased, sick, 96, 

uk^tfft, ifiVi^f (n.}, insult, 8j, i; ; 

dcsHmuU (y.), to dissemble, 117, 

ifc«o/a/if (adj.), apparent I j=dissa- 

lute, fi, 10 
deslmide (part.), destroyed, ji, 15 
daiist (□•), device. 11, 17; 76, 37 
develute (p. p.), descended, eome 

down to, 71, :o 
deeoHre, deuowrt, dfim- (n.), duty, 

li. 3'; ifi. 26; 77, 5 
dtscencien (n.), dissension, discord, 

4, 8, et s^pc 
discAarging (part.), relieving of, 

||dewing from, 37, a - 

disgest (v.), to discuss, s5, Ji 

disAailfd(p. p.), disabled, 58, I 

dUparklt (v.), to disperse, to sc 
ts'i 9Ti + 

i/i>^Vi0Hj',i/u^Vwux (adj.), pitiless, 1 
merciless, 6, 18; 8;, 3, 8 I 

dispksuri (n.), an offence gi"™ J 
to another, 69, 10 f 

dissembfyng (part), dissembling," ] 
prelendingi 87, 117 ; loj, 19 

diisimulir (n.), a pielender, 0,1. 

dissilHufyng (part.), diaiienibling, 
pretending, 87, a;; no, ji 

dissolved (pret.), of a company, 
separated, broke up, 74, ai 

distmince (n.), /fl «/« diilautut^ 
to cause estrangement, 1 7 1 1 ; U 
/at at distance = to be estrang*d, 
68, 16 ■ 

dislincki (adj.), distinct, 74, 1 

divine (v.), to judge, form conclu- 
sions, foretell, 7, 10 ; 14, 14 

i/i'iKn (p. p.), done, 101, to; 109, 7 ] 

double te (adj.), ts-ice as much, | 

dmiblet (n.). 

s under gar- 1 

douMuous (adj.), doubtful, 14, 1 
draught (n.), a privy, 81, ^^^ 
drawelh (v.), tendelh, makes foTr I 

drives at, 36, 14 
dreue (v.), to drive, to go driving, 

driiae (pret.), took part with, went 
unto, resorted lo, to, 1 ; 43, 30 | 

rfrivi/ oAouli (pret. ), came close Up 
to- 73. S 

dri/le (n.). meamng, design, inten- 
tion, plan, scheme, 6, 30; 10, 
5; ",3.r. 43.9; 81, 10; 89, 15 

duitsse (n.), prison, 35, 11 
dyscomoditie (n.), disadvantage, 

hann, 79, 31 
dysptnce (n.), expenditure, fi, 1 

■J (adv.), ' 

liii, (adv.). else, 6. 6 

tmbassialt, embastatt (n.), an em- 
bassy, 58, u; 59, 7; 61, lo 

cmtKUaikd (p. p. )< set in battle 
aimy. 97, 10 

emongc!, emongcsi (piep.), among, 
amongsti 115, <3, 14, i3,' \m, 

tncheason (a.), cause, reasoQ, 11, 11 
inimiouie (adj.), inimical, done by 

an enemy, 49, as 
enforced (p. p.). stuffed full, 06, 1 
tnfourmid, mformid (p. p.), in- 

fonned, told, 86, 6; iii, 31 
cnfugntd (pret.), fought against, 

was figbting against, 15, 5 
tnquietid (p. p.), disquieteil, dis- 

tnrbed, 89, 3 
emue (v.), to happen, to occur, 9, 

evermort (adv.), always, 67, 7 
(7;y/(adv.). evilly, ill, 88, j 
express (adj.), moulded, modi " 

ty (interj.), ahl 48, jt 
iyM{n.), eyes, 7+, 17; 85,5 

^i( (n.), appearance. 14, is 
fatU (n.), action, deed, conduct, 

fain, /aine (v.), to pretend, 30, 

30; 117.11 
fcdned (prct. aod p. p.), feigned, 

63- n: 68. 13! 87, IS 
fall (v.J, to fall unto his parte= 

to join liis side, loS, 16 
fail from (v.), to quit, forsake, a 


ensure (v.), to 

fHJurfi^ [p. p.], mad 
ed, bound by 

9, fame (n,), rumour, report, i . . 
fantasitth (v.), fandeth, 49, 1 
:, promise, 18, fcattasied, fancied, took a lilc 
to. III, 8 
e, pleiig- fanlasye (n.), (ancy, inclinati( 

ry, 59, 16; 6a, 8 
enlending (part.), inlendiaE, 4. 33 ; 

5. '7; 7. 7; itsaepe 
entered (pret. and p. p.), interred, 

enterlated (p. p.), mixed up with, 

87, B 
entier (adj.), entiie, complete, 76, 

iHlre (v.), to enter on, 91, 18 

' 5, J; 8.; 7° 

enlreali (v. Irs.), to treat, to deal 

with, to behave lowards, 65, 18 

entreleigncd [p. p.), entertained, 

treated hospitably, 108, 3 
tn (n.), ear, ji, 16 
enle (adj.), first, 7, 17 
erstt (adv.), before, ,^i, 39 
iilalei (n.), princes, dignified per- 
sons {see states). 63, 9 
eslraung^ (adj.), strange, 61, 18 
is/rauMger (n.), stranger, 33, iS 
elh, ethi (adj. and adv.), easy, 
easily, 14, 8; 17, ^3! Ji, 11; 

fardtlUs (n.), bundles, ig, 

farder (adj.), reluctant, 

away from, farther off, 35, \ 
.13; 38. 3fi : 

farder, funler {bA'i.), farther, i 

15; ■■■'■8 
farther (v. ), lo further, ti 

f,^< 8 
fasisits (a.), fashions, manners, 

fast (adj.), closely attached, sted- 

fast. firm, 45, u ; 88, 19 
fastlye (adv.), firmly, fixedly, 11, 

faut, faute (n.), fault, 30, 30 ; lofi. 

fauiye (adj.), faulty, 5, 19; 103. 10 
favor (n.), expression of face. 
looks, S?. '1 i 65,1, 17 

'v.), to be well disposed. 
is, 8; to try and shieli' " 
protect, save, ri;, 15 

I frighten, log, j 


JeaalUe (d.). feaily, good faith, 

felirmye (n.), leQow, companion, 

36. 17 
>re (v.), to fear. 35, 11: ,S. ii 
fcrthir (adv.), foriber 

i 38. 

^'(P'pO'.feldied, 39, 10 
jSa* (p. p.}, fe!ched, 17, 19 
JttuTid (adj.)i fashioned (used of 

fean (^y). smallj a fcwi tent- 
/B^j'^a small body, 114, 9 

fidde, feUU (n.}, a battle, an en- 
gagement to the field, 11, 97; 
i.% 5 i 63. 8 

fifietia (n.), fifteenths, the tax M 
called (i« MPto), 67, 16 

>< (v.), Wjfe/=kt fly, ^7, 33i 

forihfrlye (adj.), advanlagcons, j 
such BS lo furthtr ot pioraoto 
the end desired, 8, 4 

fartuitt (v.), to chance, to happen. 


"7. 16, 

;■ P-). 

forwards (adv.), fa gee forti/afde I 

= lo make ptogress, lo advnnce, 

9- 30 
firaiarde (n.), the vanguard, the 

forepert of an army, I 

IJ3. S! "4. 18 
feughliH (p. p.), fought, 68, 30 

founden (p.p.), found, 34,4 
301 fio, 7i go, 10 

fBUTth (adv.), forth, I 

had a tiist tasle, S3, 1, 
fiechtntU (adv.), in a ilock 

crowd, 3D, t& 
file{a^, £ooI, 90, 31 
>n<f (adj.), foolish, 27,16; 16, 1 
far (adv.), because of, by reason 

of, 44. 33: 81. 3 
fsrbtnrt (v.), to leave undisturbed, 

'9' n 
farfiert (v.), to foreEO. gi^e up, 61, 

fortcde (n-), prohibition, forbid- 
ding, gg, 30 
firced (prel.), heeded, cared for 

(r«no/«), 57. '7 , 
faregeing (prea. pnrt.), preceding, 

3. 15 i 49. »t. 

fanlaierid (p. p.), previously tired 
oat. 34, « 

fsTtotindcd (p. p.), previously in- 
tended, 7, sA 

firtlludiid (pret.), thought about 
beforehand, anticipated, 51, ii 

firieresse (n,), fortress, defence, 

ferttJiaught (pret.), designed be- 

iated, having /rami (n.), ordct, fashion, 

priety, 11, 36; 65, . 
frame (v. tis.), to fashion, to | 

mould, to bring into accord, 

h^' 33 
fhime (v. inlr.), to arrange itself, 

_/jiihW (p. p.), brought into order, j 

fashioned, ^^, 17 
fro (prep.), from, 67, 15 
ftem (prep.), away from, apart J 

fmiiHg {pres. 

frustrate (p. p.), frustrated, 59, 3 
ful (adv.), ftilly, 94, 19 
furJir (adv.), fiirther, 113, 9 ' 

furihc,fmirih,furth\a.&t\, forth, 

forward, onward, 5, 30 ; n " ' 

fwlA-j/ard (adv.), forward, n 

grtie (adj.), gay, fine, 96, 7 
gaine (adv.), again, 11, 9 
galarye (n.), a gallery, 75, 1' , 

gardaine, gardayoi, gardain (n.), I 

61, IS _ 

■garland (n,), used in a general! 
-. ;prize ot victory, 0" 


gait (pr 

:l.)i got. S", aSj 54, 33 
gait (prel.), suggested. Inclined, 

cauied him lo think, 7B, 11; 

81, 19 
^y (ndj.), mcrty, trilling, willy, 

clever, showy, 37. 6; 53, 9; 

S"" (v.)._ 1 

happed (pret.), chinceil, 49, 

gel. 16. 17 ! 3 
'. '*"■ 79' 3?, 

, „ Bfiueas. 13, 19; i4, 16 
gel (pret.). B»'. 75. '7 
^M(r (v.), to gather, 51,17 
jmf{v.), to give, 14. 33 
^'ilf (n.). guilt, 56, 13 
gUtyt (adj.), guilty, 80, 1 1 
glose (n.), 0. specious explanation, 

36, 19 
gae ta (inter). )i go to, come now, 

^B*/ {n^, goods, possessions, 40, 
19; 67- '• 9 

gouemance (n.), selfrestmint, self- 
control, 1, I 

gns (v.), to agree, ij. 16 

^fiu (adj.), green, Iresh, untried, 
87, 18 . 

greHnes (n.), gins, snares, 67, 9 

jpiiucs (n.), grievances, vexations, 

.e**™^'' (P- P-). grown, 70, 31 
gmdffnHptel.), felt a grudge, re- 

ptaed, 4(5. 33 
£jw (v.), allow, permit, 74, f 

ioNlities (a.), abilities, pi, 17 
Aaid (adj.), able, 8, lij; 104. 15 
Aa^Hf (pact.), dragging, 111, 31; 

handt (n.), lo btar in haHde=ia 
delude with false information, 
iG, 10; out of handt, at once, 
95i '7 

handlt (v,), to manage, deal with 
(a person], tog, ii; 1(4, 33 

kap, happe (v.), to happen, to 

- ' , 9, 18; 11. 17! 36. «; 


S9, 1 
hafptlyi, happely (adw.), haply, 

perchance, 9, jj 

11; 3*. s; S5. '"1 "■■■ » " J'i« 
flflfif, iaf A (pret.), heard, 1 5. 1 7 ; 

45. "3; 59. >': 70. 7; 715. ♦! 

81. 14; It s<tpt 

hardily (adv.), harshly, as an ob- 
jection {?). 61, 11 

hamesed (part.), equipped, IC- 

kumiys, Aameii (n.), armonr, 10. 

i8i ii,iy. 47. '9; 51-19 

harlly, kartttye (adv.), heartily, 

6j, i;; 71,8 
&irvfi/(p. p.), dragged, tornaboai. 


o delivi 

> preach, 57, i 
^awsed (pret.), strained, drawn, 

dragged. 67, 14 
kaynmu (adj.), heinous, 13, 17 
hiooynesss (n.), sorrow, 1, 13 
hiUd^. p.), healed, tended, cured 

of their wonnds, i]6, I J 
htlth (n.), safety, security, 98, I 
hcrt (v.), Ifi hear, 38, 19 ; 48, 17 el 

lutitly (adv.), heavily, 

/uygAiioiis (adj.), heinous, 19, 5; 

iigi (adj.), grqnd, important, 36, 

]8 ; SB. ID 
highly (adv.), seriously, indignatit- 

ly. angrily, 53, aj i 61, ia 
hoofil (conj.). howbeit. 43, 17 
^'iff/.^ffW (pret.), hoisted, 1 

alofi, 99, ■ii; 100, 31 
hole (adj.j^ whole, 74, 15 
helM (pret.), helped, 7, 33; : 
halpin m -' ■■-' — ' -- — 


iortebackward (adv.), lo harslicurk- 
icfin/=abuut tn mount on horse- 
bu:k, i.e. [owa.rd horseback, t6. 

ktutrfy (adj.), crented ii 

hnugi (adj.), huge, iio, ■^^ 
huttmgf! (n.), the court of the city 

of London, 66, :g 
hythinoardr (adv.), up lo this 

lime, 16, 13 

i/(adj.), evil, 44.33 

f/:/aWHf (adj.), worn-out, jt, 30 

immortal (adj.), eternal, never to 
be foreotten, everlasting, 107, 
8i 11C15 

imferioMc (adj.), unendurable, in- 
tolerable, 31, 31; 69, -ii 

impugn (v.), to fight against, to 
oppose, g, 38 

■j«(p(ep,), upon. 58. 3 

jubardy, jubardyc, jupariy (n.), 
jeopardy, peril, 35, J, g, 
36, ii\ 50, la: 68, IJ 

judged (p. p.), l^ally decided. 

ntMlylfiAv.), immediately, fol- 
lowing at once, 15, 31; 13, 15; 
39. '5; 57'?'; '04. r- 'tsape 

iadiffirintelye (adv.), without par- 
tiality, a i, t-i 

infect (p. p.}, infected, tainted, 10, 

infened (p. p.), enforced, dwelt 
upon, sS, 15 

inferiunt (u.), misfortune, 19, 3; 
80, 16 

infmimdeth (v.), itnpnrleth, esta. 
blisheth, 64, 4 

alkdyngt^Zi-^, inkling, clue, slight 
knowledge, 7, 13 

»u/ait//v (adv.), urgently, 104. j8 

intriate (v.), to treat for, to make 
proposals liir, jS, 13 

imoard (adj.), (of war) civil, in- 
testine, 6g, 1 

jtopardeus (adj.), hazardous, 14. 

kayes[ii.), keys, 16, 10 
-tc^(pret.), kept, 65, 8 
kindc (n.J, kinship, 4, ra 
Ainrfilf (v.), to gel angry, 38, 1 
kindly (adj.), natural, 81, 13 
knaiaing (pres. part.), gnawing, 

46, 14 
hiBvim (p. p.), known, sr, 37! 

64, 30; 67, 17; as, 8 

knowledge (v.), to acknowledge. 

laek (v.), to fail, 6, 30 

lap/>ed {yit\.), wrapped, 83, 31 | 

lashed oute (p. p.), squandered, 

scattered, 67, 16. 
laugh upon (v.), to laugh at, Jo. 3 
/ii7f|/i</ (adj. ), legitimate (ofason), 

41, 3= 
lay, laye (pret.), was lodging, was 

living, ig, 7;7+-3i 
leapt (pret.), leapt, Bj, 30 
least (q-dti).), lest, 11 

>.,g; 1 

"3, it 

leastwise (adj. 4-n.), at tie /eail- 

«'(j^=at least, 31, 1^ 
lefte (pret.), ceased from, left off, 

/<jBr(adj.), slight, little, 68, 19 

lenctk (v.), tmsteth, allendeth, in- 
dineth, 48, ji 

len^r (adv.), longer, i\, 15; 38, 
30; 48, 19 

/i«iy(pret.), leaned. Inclined, tend- 
ed, 45, 18 

lese (v.), to lose, 61, 3; 68, 33; 83, 
14! Sg, 31 

Isssyd (pr£t.), lessened, grew le 

lest (adj.), least, at tht lest w 



X ail rvents, 5, 18; 6g, magry, maugryi (prep,), in spile 
of, 38, 11131, Ji 

maistryt (n.), work, achievemcnl, 

make (w.), to effect, do, JnllueDce, 
iifi, as 

malice (cl), wicked defd, 31, 1; 

lesU (adv.)> least, 15, 10; 47, 

lit, Ultt (v.), to liindcr, »7, 35, 31; 

30, 6; 61, S; III, 33 
kt (t. ), to forbear, refrain from, 0, 

17; 3a. ij 
i<r/, ////f (□.), hitidiaoce, iG, iS; 

/«At/ (pret. and p. p.), roiebore, 

efraiQEd from, ig, 16; 35, n; 

iS, 7 
! (p. p.). let, 7, t8 
(adv.), rather, by preference, 

^ (a'lj-)i dear. 44, 11 
/(fiwfpret.l, alighted, 17, 11 
ligAlli (adv.), tightly, on slight pio- 

like, lyht (to) (v.) = 'o tw pleasing 
unto, to please, 18, lo; 7G, g; 
77. M V J 9S' H 

A:if, /fib (adj.), likel]', g, 16; 15, 

Hkelihod (il), likelihood, oflikdi- 
kod='ai. all probabUily, 41, ;; 
77. »a 
/iic/y (adj.), GufScient, adequate, 

//iW)'(adv.),inaU probability, 49, y 
A!i(«M (impers. v.)t is pleasing unlo, 

61, ro; 63, 19 
flj((T.), to like, to wish lo do any- 
thing, 40, 34; S». 10567,31,33 
tae pnterj.), lo! 31, i.s; 40, 6 
lakinglB (n.}, caring fort 33, ig 
im.pnj'lpart.), belonging. 74, 4 
lookc (v.), to eipect, 7, i; 9, 13; 

lyceHct (v.), to permit, give li- 
cense, 75, 33 
lyngtr (v.), to retard, to hinder 



manniqacUeri (o.), manslayeis, 
murderers, a8, 5 " 

". 33; 94. is; 106, IB; iij. J 

133, 19. 34 
iiiary (v.), to marry, 41, 31; jS, 

ao; 59. 'S 'tsape 
maryabu (adj.), marriageable, of 

mtde (n.), fee, reward, bribe, gg, 7 
mfnfli»«B/(n,)iamendnient, ag, 17 

■ "^i'S ("■). 

ro. 17 

(n.), means, methods, 
minU (pret.), meant, 7s, a 
WKW^ JadV.), merrily, 46, 

33; . 
ffiirf (adj.), roeny, 49, 
fn.r»7«/ (n. ), marvel, wonder, 5M 
«»« (n.), a dish (of meat 

46. S. " 
ixo'e jv.}, to meet, 134, 14, 
nuff (adj.), fit, 137, II 

s, methods, t^^^l 

frrily, 46, a; ^^^| 
91.3 ^H 
7. 49. ^H 

:1, wonder, s%^^H 

134. 14' '8 ^^ 
?■ II I 


mind, myni , ., 

lomtend, 3], 33; 35,37 
mhtdtd, (p. p.), intended, 
miniske (v.), to diminish, 
minister fv.) lo SUPP^. * " 

of work, aj. 9 

nitsUkt (v. impers.), to be dis- 

pleuing to an; one, fii, g 
muli/ud (t. 3. pret.), disliked, i6, 

m'j^firisien (n.) in /da's contempt 

otlbe court, 67, 15 
miste (n.)i laek, want, S4, i 
nucien (n.), promptii^, suggcst- 

il^, proposal, ^5, ih; 76, 31 
n0[&4£ (adj.), unreal, pretended, 


e, 3.3o;,iOi 

merulk (□.), month A. S. miinoS, 

Mtme (adj.)=no, 45, 1; 50, sG; 61, .1 
i+i 90, ij\ 91, I I 

tiBHghl (adj.), wortliless, base, de< I 
filed. 53, H 

naugkle (n.), notliJngj of naug. 
= for no reason, without cbq 

obeysaunce (n.), rule exorcised 01 

another. 76. 15 
obtfignal ia. p.), oblaioed, 105, 13, |1 
Baasions (ti.1, motives, 81. 6 r 

9/^ (adv.), off, 35,15; so, 'Oi 64, 1 

0/ (prep.), out of, 14, 1; irs. 3 
of (prep.l, for the sake of, out 

through, 45, 17 
e/'(prep.)'=by, 8s, 14; 96, : 

mtirthtr (o.), murder, 109, 31 

name (n.), pretext, pretence, title, 
13. 38; '4. 16 

namtly (adv.), chiefly, specially, 
53. 3'! 70. "; '"■ 30; ruiBtely 
which u=wiiich is especially, 

nalMesse (ndv.), nevertheless, 1, 

ttedes (adv.), of necessity, 7, (S; 

9.39: 39, 14 
aaits cost (adv.), of necessity, 49, 

Bmr (adj.), near, 44. ^9 
mrc (adv.), nearly, 4;!, 38 
nirc (prep.), close to, 50, 9 
«^, «..« (adv.), never, .0. 

I", l6i 

ef (prep.), on; cflhe biukside= 

the backside, 111, 14 
fl/(prep.l, cOQCemiog, 90. 3a 
^(prep.)=£rom; rewards of than 
ards received from them. 

n of, £ 

&c. I , 
^/■(prep.), by ri 

81,11; 97, 19 
o/" (prep.) = on the part of, 
Biidye (adj.), alone, 44, 19 
one, (adv.), once, 40, 32; 

50, 14 
BHksse (conj,), unless, 96, ■ 
ofcH (v.), to levCEJ. discic 

r (adv.; 

! Si. 

order (v.), to arrange about, ma- 
nage, 34, 6 

other (adj.), different, of another 
fasliion, 47, 11 

Blher (pr. sing, I, the other, 87, 13 

olli/r{iH]. pron.), each other, " ' 

|<r (pr.jiOS a plural = «^t, i' 

ethers (poss. sing.) Che other's, 4c 

Btkerwtrt (adv.), in a dlffercDt d. 
■ 1.43.9 

i (adj.), too great. 21, g 

6S, 16 

. (i.dv.) = tc 

>3. 33 

K (adv.). n 

hastily. ' 

Bi^ht (pieC), owed, ij, 1 
0»r«^(praa, pi, ), ourselves, 1;, 7 
fl«/ B? (ptep.), without, stript of, 

eutward (adv.), outwardly, 85. 33 

pageaunlts (n.), shows, spectacles. 

painltd (adj.), counterfeit. 36, 14 
police (n.), palace, 41. g 
faradvinlurt (adv.), prradven- 

fariaii, fiercaie (adv.), perchance. 

(to do something), or forgive- 
ness (for not doing anything), 
75.35; 76. a; 77. Mi 56, II 
farfitily (adv.), perfectly, 69, 11 
panan, farsini (n.), pereon, per- 


palrime (n.), pnltem, 65, 16; | 
64. 33 , , 

faj/Ht (n,), pains, S4, a 

ptcimeU (ndv.), piecemeal, piece 
hy niece, 85,0 

fens (n.), equals, 36, 33 

/£r»j^ (v.), to understand, 71,14 

pertiiUTS (n.), partners, participa- 
tors, 73, J 

piked {1. pret.), picked, 17, 19 

pii (v.), to plunder, 6, 15; 51, 101 
^7. 14 

pilling (fi^, plundering, 67, 10 

pliui (n.), to htaie (hold) plaa~Ka 
be more ri^aided, to have 
weight, 4, 11; 9, 31; rj, 31 

place (o.), a house, dwelling, 19, 
g, n 

/to^ (n.), to (iii« plaa—lo have D 
result, 104. 3J 

jifoiw (adj.), downright, out and 
out, complete. 49, 3 

playfelmiiyi (n.), playfellow, 36. 17 

//i^ (n.), condition, 36. 11; 6.t. 

pointt (n.), to hi at a fainle, 

resolved, to have made ap 

mind, 6q, 10 
poinles (□.), laces with tags^ 

tying up the ho 
polillkdy (adv.), 

with wise policy, 51, ' 
polling{^^, robhing, 67, 
parte (n.), carriage, behavii 

(0.), p.." 

parlaiacd (prct.}, pertained, he- 
longed, 91, 4 
parleittrs {a.}, partners, sharers, 73, 

96. a: 

mith a 

r In.), 1 

ntiy)- 73. . 

passing (idv.), beyond, 

exceeding, $t, 11 

"' " ' "Mded, thooght 

{I.e. of the 

porter (n.), the officer 

the city gales, 107. . 
poisible (adv.), possibly, 59, 
posies (n.), messengers on hmse. 

Po«r^ (v.), 

preay,praye, (n.), prey, boot 

11; !Oi, 35 
prechers (n.l, preachers, 57, 
pregnaunf (adj.), expert, clever, 

ready, 104, 13; 117. 
prenHses (n.), apprentices, 74, 5 
prepensed (p. p.), previously ' 

tended or thought 


^eficitd {pret.}, proposed, 13, 16 
prist (n.)i press, crowd, 74, 6 
priUndtd (p. p, ), sei forth, relitcd, 

8fi. S 
prttuni, prcvmU (vj, lo forcslsll, 

anticipate, 5, i; 65, 18; 68, 16 
pmiy ifi.iii.\ prtvy p/'= acquainted 

with, infonned of, 1 10, 14 
prime, priuyt (adj.), private. 16, 

fraaist (q.), proceeding, course of 

action, 36, 74 
proctsse (n.), (used of a document) 

compilation, composition, >;3, i; 

81, io:=a legal wairant, 56, 


puysaiince (n.), power, forces, 

bring aliout, care for, 39, 8 ; 
procuring l^."), management, t 

pn^er (adj.), personally good- 

Tooking, <4, 10 
prttiisien (n.), foresight, fore- 

thought, i_. 

prwidtnUy (adv.), with fore- 
thought, (jj, 13 

puimnt (adj.), puissant, powerful, 
mighty, p. JO 

paisaunu (o.), a j 

an army, 61, aj; 97,6 

purchased (ptE^..), procured (with- 
out any notion of & price to be 
paid], 114, ^4 

purged (p. p,) (of obstacles), dear- 

purpose (n.), o/'/ur^M=with a 

design, 44, 6 
purpose (v.), to propose, 7J, 15, 


pyke (v.), to pick, gather up, find 
out, 9r, 5 

quaihd (prct.), failed, came to 

naught, 65, 15 
quailed (p. p.), quelled, ruined, 

race (v.), lo tear, lo rend, 49, 7 
raced (pret.), (ore, rent, 48, 14 
rain (□,), reign, 19, a 
raj-Mtry (pres. part.), reigning, 38, 

»(•.). I 

reipt, receiving, :o4. 

reccitild (pret.), probably a mis- 
take for perceived, 8, ao 

rechdissi (adj.), reckless, 113. iS 

rtcidimacian (n,|, relnpae, falling 
back again into a disease, 34, 1 

«fi(v.).tocare, 90, 31 

TOfOm^rtinf (pres. part.), consol- 
ing, cheering, la, i 

n!fiTM«(i(pret.), g^ned, reached, 

rtdounde (v.), la conduce, jj, 14; 

rtdyntssc (n.), in a redy 


readiness, iii, 31; 

ifi. 3>; 

.17, a.; 1.8, la; .aa 


1*3, 15 

refraint v. a. , 10 res 

rain, to 

check, I a, ,4 

morials, 55, 
«i«™i|!«(, loceniin 

a, 67, 17 

counted, 55, 30; 59, 7 

i 7'i 4; 

remnant (n.), the rest (of persons), 

risidoa (ii.)i the residue, what re- 

lunins, the canclubion, ig, 33' 
resolufe (adj.), firm, decisive, jg, 
"; 77. »3 

«!«•( (v.), to have access, be ad- 
mitted, 75, 14 

reiorl (n.), the throng of visitors, 
the attendance of cnuttiers, 43, 

%fi(cii (pret.), reiDained, 93, j; 

rfw (v.), to tive, to plunder, 19, 

rnrcrente (Qdj.), used where we 
now say raitrcrtd, 14, 31 

riall (adj.), royal, 46, 10 

rid, ridde (v.), to rid, to deslioy, 
45, 19: 81, il 

ridde, ryd (p. p. )> destroyed, re- 
moved, 56, 16; 110, 10 

riskcs (n.), rushes, ia, 4 

n'wrr (n.), plunderers, 11, 11 

naiHt (p. p.), run, fled, 115, sj 

rore(a\, uproar, ij, 8 

reumi (n.), place, position, 71, a8 

nni», ™aw (v.), to whisper, J3, 
3. '9; 77. " 

FBUght (pret.), recked, cared, 83, 

rmUHitig (n. and part.), whisper- 

ii^ 73. 3 
fTirffn.), redTtcss, 53, 33 
rumhlt (n.), noise, disturbance, 

19, so 
rHn^Tv-). [ofs rumour) = to be 

current, 14, i?; "o. '6 
ruHiie (pret.), ran, 8s, 30 
ryBi/Aiad'}.), wrinkled, shrivelled, 


imrrt (adj.), sacred, fio, 13 
saddt{ad}.), set, steady, sober, ^1, 

!au\y.y. io SBy. 17, 3' 
joiH/HOJy (n.), sanctuary, 34, 17: 

jo/Kfi^fprel,), saluted. 17, 16 
— IW/^(a5j.),Bafe.37. " 

seacely (adv.), scarcely, io6. I 
scant (adv.), scarcely, hudly, 1 

3t 53. 4; "3.1? " 

stoutviaUhc (n.), spies, n 

outtookeis, oatposts, 120, 33 
scrupilMue (adj.), scrupulous, 

troubled with scruples, 57, 3 
«(v.).tosee. 39, 31:47, 7:49,11 
sensed (pret.), ceased, nj, 33 
seirel (adj.), intimate, confidential, 

in places of confidence, 64, 98; 

82, i; 85, 101 87, aO; 114, 18 
«^(pron.), itself, 43, 18; Si. 4 
ulf, stl/e (adj.). same, 7, J + ; <o, 

74; 48, 19; 50, 6; 65, 16 
«/j'(adj.), innocent, 83, 31 
seniblaunce (n.), appearance, pre- 
tence, shew, J], 3; 45,4; '" 

sembstauncial (adj.), 

trustworthy, 51, 18 
seviyngi^RiX.^, thinking, i 
stqutstrcd (p. p.), separated, 

utU by (v.), to estc 

119, 10 
scverail (adj.). scpar!..., ,^ . 
shit, skitte (p. p.), shut, 83, 1 
skertdye (adv.), shortly, 

quickly, 11, i ; 48, a 
shotl (v.), to shoot, 7, II 
skrev/de (aElJ.), evil, bad, 37,'1 

5<S-4 , L 

xjr^ (n.), a confession oFhiu^iI 

xArwife (piBt.), did shrink, d 

back, 47, 33 
skryvelv.), to make a contest 

c}:dss.4Jiy. :°9^| 

li^TU (n.), signjl lo begin (the 

s/eiie{v. tr.), to promote, set for- 

battle), . = 3, .7 

ward, js, 16 

J^jfr (vO. lo make a sign about, 

j/«/« (v. inlr.), to make hasle, 48, 

to hint at, 70, 3a 


liU (sdj.). Bick, 34, »9 

j/cfli (n.), success, 7, 30 

sinister (ndi.). wconeful, evil, =3, 

j/Jm// (n.), spying, watch, 95, *8 


sjiiailes (n.), espials, spies, 4], 15 

jflu (conj.), since, 38, 10 1 74, m 

sfiriluaJ (adj.), j/inVw:/ bkb, tha. 

wlh caution, 39. 3 1 

the laity, s7. 1 ' 

lit/U, sM, sylh (adv.), since, 16, 

spirilualilyt (n.), the clergy, 15, . 

a6; 34. i»; 37. '41 57. "1 " 



j/Hr«( {v. , (conn, wilh i/irr , to 

jifAM (eonj.), since, 11, 9 

kick, 90, 4 

jWo« (p. p ). sat. +5, 17 

j/r<f« (adj.), sliglu, uliimportanl, 

slably (adv.), firmly, secutely, 63, 

JS, 8 

!taie (n.), steady, firm condition, 

r/mdir (adj.). weak, small, incon- 

105, 16 

siderable, no, lo; H3, j 

sla>id (v.), to slanti wUh^io be 

Ji^p4((n.7) = nliltle matter, 33, 16 

agreeable to, n, 3; 13, 14; 34, 

i/y)^ (adj.), iiisecnic, unstable, 

iJ. 13 

g, 34: 63, 16 

slandiitg (part.), =M-hile it re- 

imorta (p. p.), smothered, S4, 3 

mained, as it a fact, 59, 16 

tcdtr (adj.), moderate, limited (ol 

s/ala (n.), princes, 5, 5, 30! Jc^. 


Jiubdt (adj.), sudden, 4<i, iQ 

sicrre chamber (11.), Slar-chamberc 

sodaMy (adv.), suddenly, B3, 31 

4I1 4 

slerte (prel.). started, 8s, 19 

such a degree, 3. 33; 44,91 67. 

j/y (v.), lo slop, u:, 10; 1 1^ 

it tt safe 

»Si "o, 13 

se Ihal (conj.), provided (hat. ^1. 

shyid (prel.), haiud, stopped, iiB, 

/OHK (n.), a simi, 70, s; 106, 31 

shmacke (n.), heart, courage, 5, (Si 

WHWirf (n.), sunb,el, 116. iT; no. 

<4, 41 ><». » 

f/«y (n.). slursy, a atoge, latldillg, 

sereeres (n.), sorceu-^s, witch, 4^^. 

lloorofabuililing, 66, J 

s8; 47. 7 

sloHlly (adv.), coniagtfoUSly, 4* 

jHfE(ad*.), sorely, sS, + 


wrtf (n.), company, body, 112, 
16; i»i, a6 

j/™««^ (adj. , cliary, iiist-ardly 
slow tb gfve, I, 16; backward 

!«.»«', smvned (|.rcu), soiuuled, 

had a lone of, ,-2, ly; 58, 3 


.««^^ In.), sulla.,, :y, 5 

sinigkle (adj.), atrall, narrow, 

jotWw (d.). n cobbler, a shoe- 

small, 17, 11 

ranker, 79, 5 

r(««jiA (v.), to slrenglheU, IIJ 

Jfor/ (v.), /D ipare lo do^Ko re- 

^HL btia from doing, jS, 1 1 ; Gg, 14 

ilrenghlU (n.), sirongholds, place 

^Ktete// (adv.), espcdally, 5;. :\i 

ofsKurily, ;6, U) 


'■". ^ 

ilrikin (p, p.), sliicken, sUuclc, 

48. 14; 97. 3' 
/friwrf (pret.). suo^ 117, B 
i/rntc (pret.), struck, 114, 6; 114. 

sluiilHtes (n.). students, 108, tj 
sluffe (n.), baggage of an aimy or 

traveller, 31, 10, 11 
sturrc (v.), 10 stir, to beslir iJiem- 

iturre (n.). disturba 

"7; i 

M9. 8 

iH^'nuHff (n.), the great part, the 
chief portion, i, 5 

nurly, lurely, sureli, suritie, luer- 
tic [n.), security. 11, 30; 13, 8) 
16, 30; 3!. 6; 38, 33; 50, 8i 

{p. p.), sued, petitioned, 55, 

airfct (n.), burden (used of ^ck- 

ness), 34, 4 
mrmisi (v,), to surest, 58, 13 
sfuptcle (adj.), suspected, i [o, 33 
nu^ftiDf (n.), suspiciozi, the being 

suspected, jiS, i8 
uttts (n.), suits, petitions to the 

King, SI, I 
Miml/ier (n.), i. c. subilcties=dc- 

siens and figures to adorn a 

labte, or to form part of some 

gieal banquet, 45, ig 
aitlli, tulltll (adj.), cunning, 41, 

larki (a .), a course, way, direction 

toting (n,), the arresting, 47, 1 

lallaget (n.), tolls, (axes. 67, 11 
taiiauiue (a.), delay, loj. 10; 106, 

taunting (part), teasing, J4, sj 
lavt (v.) = to have, 1 1, 10 
Idled (^eU),lo\A.iiS, 301110,17 
temptstiBus (adj.), stormy, fnll ot 

trouble, 1, 9 
teinfKiral men (n.), laymen, 31, 5 
taulmth (v,), bas a tender r^ud 

for, 14, 17 
tmiUrid (pret.), was careful abotil, 

regarded, 33, 11 
thadvaulTy—ih'advoutTy (o.), [he 

adultery, 63, 28 
tha/gn by crasis for the a/on. 39, 

/^i» (adv.), then, 8, 33; 80, j 

that Ipron.), that which, 9, 17: 48. 



U laitn 



laki (v.), to belak^ i 
" }ai (p. p.), received. 
Favourably accepted, i 

18; 71. 

; 73. ' 

; 90. 

tht (pron.), thee, 47, 14 rf safu 
theiHstlf, tlumstlft ^ron.). them- 
selves, 4, 4; 6, m el paiiim 
then (adv.), than 8, 53 el pasam 
thrriiy (adv.), in that direclbn, 

105. ^8 
Ikirtfori (pron. +prep.), for I hM 
(result or purpose), 8, 1 

Ihtrelo (adv.), beside that, 1 

over, 70, 13 
there with all (adv.), tl 

39. ■> , 

thitk (adj.), in great numben, j 

this (pron.), these, 3 
Ihitheniiard (adv.), 

Ihonrw, thorough (prep.), through, 

« (prep.) = with, fiik a quarrel IQ, 

17. 19 
Mgi!rf(p.p.), malted together, 85, 

lem (ndj.), i/Mi'i7«(=that one, 8, 8; 

14, 10; 19, 10; 33, 1; 34, s8; 

44. '3: h^^ iottiiTpe 
tee (prep.), la. 8, iS; loo, 31; loO, 

14; 108, 10 el sape 
tennetttors, the bodyguard of a 

despotic prince, executioners, 

79' B( 84, 5i 85, 3{iidj.), /At /D//Hr=that other, 

8. Qi H, It; 59, 10; 33, 3i 34, 

'9i 44i '41 50. 41 i7t II <' 

Inuani (prep, and adj.), friendly 
with, fnendly dis|ias^, well 
inclined, 7, is; 58, 26 

lawarde (prep,), unto, 11, 33 

Wioardi (adj.), near at hand, ap' 
preaching, imminent, threaten- 
ing;, 3.Si49, =»; >'o,33 

lawardtntist (n.), traetablene^is, 
docility, 4, 

■""'""" (n.), devices, schemes, con- 

IroKth, Ireulkt {n.), truth, fidelity, 
39, 6, 8; 40, 3; 88, 30; by my 
ft™rts=upon my faith, 7, iB 

tntaiith (v.), thinltelh, believeth, 
36, 33 

trtuth (n.). truth, ai, it ; 76, 15 

Irusia (n.), baggage boimd (or 
IruaBcdJup, 19, 31 

tiacyeit, tuuiea (a.), protection, 
'4> 3i 30. «' 

^liM(n.), alliemc. asubjeclofdis- 

pO' supported 
, from ^low, Q, 95 
VHdlrsttlt (p. p.), propped up, 9, 10 
VHnulefy (adj-)> unmeet, unJit, ij, 

4; 70, s6 
unainta {a.), insecunty, 85, 5 
untatiit (adj.), without being cap- 
lured, 39, 2! 

Hnthriflc! Jn.), thriftless persons 

19, 19; 07, iG 
un/i> hym viarA (pret. and pron.), 

towards him, 76, 1 
vnlctked (adj.), without teeth, 6, j 
u/i-.. (prep.), over, 77, ij 
■upprwardc (adv.), upward (used nf , 

the journey from the provinces 

toward London), iS, 18 
urc (n.), Dse, cKperience, 18, 19 
«se (v.), to be wont, 55, 10 
utttrty (ids.), entirely, 48, 11 

very (adj.), true, real, 70, 33 
i/ifl^(n.), a journey, sg, 17 
viSaili (n.), victuals, especially 

bere, animal food, 45, 30 
voite (n.), language, spoken pur- 
pose, it, 1 
vmde (v.), to depart from, 61, 34 
voyded, voided (pret.), avoided, 1, 

34; 4V"^! (P- P)4S, 18 
voide (v.), to avoid, 48, 19 
■vyatide (n.), provision, means of 

■waics la.], ways, 88, ig 
....V. |v I, to ..toh. ,00. 5 
warde {p.), prison, confinement, 

■ware (adj.), aware, conscious, 47, 

wanly (adv.), warily, carefully, 39, 

■warlye (adj.), welidllke, 5. 31 
jaaiti (pret.). wist, knew, 39, 33 
itii*oi(p. p.},erowii,waxed, II, II 
■way, wayt (v. ), to weigh, 19, 1 1 1 

73. *9 
Toi^oiirf (p. p.}, weakened, 34, 3 
■wealt (n.), welfare, ;i, 7; 75. 18 
vieallh (d.), prosperity, happinesi, 

84, 31; 88, ao 
■aiealth/ul (adj.), conducive to wel- 

fare, profitable, 11, 14 
lacafencd (p. p.), furnished with 

weapons. 19, 17 
■wedde (v.), to attach, bind, tj, 
■:iicdcr{a.), weather, too, ■ 
U'.v/K (v ), to Ihink 14. 


■ >i> GLOSSAJtr. ^1 

md. w*. (.dv.J. entirelj. qniCe. 

a>R«^ (p. p.), mairied (□ t «4^| 

«^'(id;.)^.lry, IS. T 

wr^Vir (adv ), from d woil^H 

W<ii.). w«!. welfare, prospmlv. 

point of view. 60. ■^^ ^^H 

«wiri«(>(D.). boDDur, ^^t^.^^H 

wd Bom^ (p. p.), of a good uamc 

1 and ctuinicte;. 69. 19 

-^wrtV Mv.), deservedly. 75-9^1 
Mrtfe (».), to become, to befell, -1 

1 wvilMfn.). «ctf»re. 6, jj 

«-<■« (..), losn^wM. 15, 19; 51. 

aw wort/ii Aim = woe befall him, 1 

■««/ (p- P^). »"«ned. thooght. 8!. ^ 

mW, bW/ (3 5. pies.), knowi, iji ■ 

wrnU ahmti (pret.t, eintol btiD- 

1,49, =1; 8?, » 

self, SCI himsel/, 79. 16 

mtif. TOjrf/ (1 s. ptes.), fcnMTf 

MF (p«L snbj.), wire, fhoul.l be, 

"; 90, 31 

86, JO 

Ttvtt (1 i4. pres.), know, 4^ 

nrritJ (p. p.), ireaiict], 85, 17 

6fi, 31 

:fW/a'* (3 sing, ptes.), knowedlj 

wU«(iDleri.|, used bs an cKclama- 

16; 70, ly. 78, J» 

tioo and ialrtKludDg a quislion. 
AlmoM = TeHme 68.. 

n-™j« (v.). to wrest, I4, it 

a-™«/(pKt.). nri«ed,«iniea« 

a*a <U^ (prep,), iQ legtrd ot io 


respect of. 6S, 3. 


aiaf/ar (prep. ), m respecl of, 63, 

wj/ttyng (n.), Icnowlcdg*, 13, 

aitre (codj.), wiieisas, 3», 33 

_w(interj.l. yea. 18, a 

u'*in/fl(»dv.), far what reasoij, jo. 

Xett (adv.). eke, .Iso. 44, 8 

jildiprel.). yielded, 1.5, II 

if-Ao/* {adj.). all ot them, ji, 6 

j-/« (n.), the cjes, UJ, »1 

whjilur, itf^u';(^r(conj.),whetlier, 
6.*; 7-7; i,ii'"^p' 

7««.« (v.). to imagine, to 

mil (adv.). wel' (b"! periiaps a 

piurs/^ (pron.). yourselwa, 

misprint in the fir^i edition), 59, 


j-rAii (prel.l, annoyed, gtit 

miw (n.), manner, faihion, iS, 31 

was irksome, 8, ,6 

wilt, toyit (prep of mo/), knew. 

XrriliHgc (pr. part), irTitatili£ 

5°,3ii 63, a>;5fi. '9;*«.'8; 
m»( (».), to know, 91, .1 

\-oking, 11, 11 

Txfe In), zealoiu, aniioas cat 




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